Chapter 9 - ions in gas phase c. Steps i. Transfer of...

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Chapter 9: Ionic and Covalent Bonding I. First Ionization Energy a. Minimum energy needed to remove highest-energy (outer most) e - from neutral atom in gaseous state b. Increases as you go right and up on the periodic table c. Each period, IE increases with increasing atomic # i. Larger effective nuclear charge (more protons = attract e - more) ii. Shorter e - - nucleus distance d. Each group, decreases as period number increases i. Exceptions 1. Easier to ionize IIIA than IIA 2. Easier to ionize VIA than VA II. Electron Affinity a. Energy change for process of adding e to neutral atom in gas phase b. Negative because release energies III. Ionic Bonds a. Chemical bond formed by electrostatic attraction between cations and anions b. Lattice Energy i. Change in energy that occurs when an ionic solid is separated into
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Unformatted text preview: ions in gas phase c. Steps i. Transfer of electrons ii. Aggregation of cations/anions d. Coulomb’s Law i. E = kQ 1 Q 2 /r 1. r = distance between atoms IV. LOOK UP BORN-HABER CYCLE V. Covalent Bonds a. Sharing two electrons between two atoms (bonding pair) VI. Skeleton Structure a. Molecule prefers symmetric structure b. Build up around least electronegative atom VII. Energy Potential Curve a. PE almost 0 when far apart b. As get closer, PE gets lower (get more stabilized) c. At optimal bond length, PE is lowest d. Any closer, PE goes up VIII. Polar Covalent Bond a. Binding electrons spend more time near one atom than the other IX. Electronegativity a. Increases as you go right and up periodic table...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course CHEM 0310 taught by Professor Brummond during the Fall '08 term at Pittsburgh.

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Chapter 9 - ions in gas phase c. Steps i. Transfer of...

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