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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 I Solution a Solute gas/solid in a...

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Chapter 12 I. Solution a. Solute – gas/solid in a solution of gases/solids in the smaller amount b. Solvent – larger amount II. States of Solution a. Saturated i. Equilibrium with amount of dissolved solute ii. Max amount of dissolved solute in solution iii. Rate solute dissolved = rate dissolved solute returning to solid form b. Unsaturated i. More solute can be added c. Supersaturated i. Has more dissolved solute than a saturated solution ii. Happens when solution is heated (to increase solubility) and then slowly cooled iii. Very unstable 1. Disturbance causes precipitation III. Solubility a. Amount of solute that dissolves in a quantity of solvent at certain temperature b. Why? i. Natural tendency towards disorder favors dissolving. ii. Relative forces between/w/in species must be considered iii. Stronger forces w/in solute oppose dissolving iv. Stronger forces between solute and solvent favor dissolving c. Like dissolves Like i. Polar/polar ii. Nonpolar/nonpolar iii. Similar intermolecular forces in solute and solvent
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