Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Eukaryotic Genome and its...

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Chapter 14: Eukaryotic Genome and its Expression I. Eukaryotic Genome a. Large multiple chromosomes b. More regulatory sequences c. Large amounts of noncoding DNA (junk NDA) d. Translation and transcription are physically separated i. Transcription inside nucleus 1. Allows many opportunities for control before translation ii. Translation outside nucleus e. Unique genes in Eukaryotes i. Genes encoding histones, Cdk’s controlling division, proteins that process mRNA f. Four Common Model Systems i. Yeast, sacchromyces cerevisiae 1. Single cell ii. Nematode, transparent body 1. 1,000 cells 2. nervous system, reproductive system iii. Fruit fly, drosophila melanogaster 1. Mutations, phenotypes 2. Developmental stages iv. Thale cress v. Look at Chart in Powerpoint II. Unique Aspects of Eukaryotic Genome a. Lots of junk DNA i. Highly repetitive sequences 1. Minisatellites – 10-40 bp x1000s 2. Microsatellites – 1-3 bp x 15-100 ii. Moderately repetitive sequences 1. Coding for tRNA and rRNA 2. Transposons a. 3-10% in eukaryotes b. 40% in humans c. jumping genes i. pieces of DNA that move to other chromosomes ii. may copy-paste themselves randomly iii. cause mutation and genetic variation iv. transposase recognizes sequence pops the gene out/copies it and moves it d. SINEs – short interspersed elements (500 bp) i. 15% genome e. LINEs – long interspersed elements (7000 bp) i. 17% f. Retrotransposons i. RNA copy to DNA then inserted into genome
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g. DNA transposons – move w/o replicating; no RNA intermediate i. Excises then goes somewhere else 3. rRNAs a. Our bodies have lots of ribosomes b. 18S, 5.8S, 28S, 5S i. S refers to size/weight c. Copied 280 times to quickly generate lots of ribosomes d. Pre-transcript together and then cut into three mRNA genes
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Chapter 14 - Chapter 14 Eukaryotic Genome and its...

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