Chapter 26 - Chapter 26: Bacteria and Archaea: The...

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Chapter 26: Bacteria and Archaea: The Prokaryotic Domains I. 26.1 How Did the Living World Begin to Diversify? a. Three domains of life: i. Bacteria—prokaryotes ii. Archaea—prokaryotes 1. Extreme environments iii. Eukarya—eukaryotes 1. True nucleus b. Members of all the domains: i. Conduct glycolysis ii. Replicate DNA semiconservatively iii. Have DNA iv. Have RNA (from DNA) v. Transcription and translation using the same genetic code vi. Plasma membranes and ribosomes II. Prokaryotic cells vs. eukaryotic cells. a. Pro = before karyote = nucleus i. No cytoskeleton ii. Circular DNA ring iii. No membrane bound organelles 1. Including nucleus iv. Binary fission v. Peptidoglycan cell wall (bacteria) vi. Ribosomes = smaller vii.Operons viii. Plasmids ix. 1 RNA Pol b. Eu = true karyote = nucleus i. Linear chromosomes (multiple) ii. Cytoskelelton iii. Membrane bound organelles iv. Mitosis/Meiosis v. Fungi – Chitin, Plants = Cellulose vi. Ribosomes = larger vii.No operons viii. No plasmids ix. 3 RNA Pol. III. Prokaryotic Morphology and Habitat a. Every 1 human cell = 10 bacterial cell in/on body b. Every type of habitat on Earth c. Most numerous organism on Earth i. # prokaryotes in ocean 100 millx # stars in visible universe d. Mostly unicellular e. Some = motile i. Flagella
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f. Chains/clusters = each single cell = fully viable/independent. g. Adhere to each other after binary fission (sometimes) i. Cocci ii. Bacilli iii. Spirilli iv. Pleiomorphic – diff depending on environment h. Usually in communities of different species including microbes i. Biofilms i. Sugary substance allowing them to stick to each other and object its trying to live on ii. Cells excrete gel-like polysacch. matrix trapping other cells 1. Plaque on teeth
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Chapter 26 - Chapter 26: Bacteria and Archaea: The...

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