Chapter 13 - Chapter 13 Kinetics I Rate of Reactions a...

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Chapter 13: Kinetics I. Rate of Reactions a. Change in concentration of a reaction or product in a unit time interval i. Depends on concentration ii. Rate = concentration/t (M/s) iii. Slope of graph of Concentration vs. Time iv. Decreases as reaction proceeds b. Rate = k[A] x [B] y = Rate law i. aA + bB → cC + dD ii. Experimental results for x, y, and k iii. x and y = orders 1. Typically small integral values 2. 1, 2, 0, ½, (-1) 3. x + y = order of the reaction iv. k = rate constant 1. Changes with temperature v. Does NOT involve PRODUCTS vi. x doesn’t have to = a 1. But in unimolecular (A products) a. rate = k[A] 1 2. In bimolecular a. Rate = k[A][B] c. Using Rate Law i. Second order – A + A products ii. Rate = k[A] 2 d. G ° is not a good indicator of rate i. Pb(NO 3 ) 2 + KI → PbI 2 + 2KNO 3 , G ° = - 46 (spontaneous) 1. Rate = fast ii. Zn + Cu(NO 3 ) 2 → Zn(NO 3 ) + Cu, G ° = - 224 (spontaneous) 1. Rate = slow e. Depends on temperature i. Mg + O 2 → 2MgO, G ° = - 569 (spontaneous) 1. Rate = extremely slow at room temperature 2. Rate = much faster at higher temperatures II.
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