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Chapter 21 - Chapter 21 Descriptive Chemistry I Oxides a...

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Chapter 21: Descriptive Chemistry I. Oxides a. Group I and II i. Ionic compounds 1. Metal cation and oxide anion a. Except Be ii. Solids at room temperature iii. Acidic/Basic Properties 1. React with water OH - 2. Na 2 O + H 2 O 2NaOH 3. Acts as strong Bronsted Lowry base a. OH - = conjugate acid of O 2- 4. Reaction happens very quickly b. Nonmetals i. Molecular (covalent) compounds ii. Covalent Lewis Structures to Know: 1. H 2 O 2. SO 2 3. CO 2 iii. Pollutants 1. Acid rain a. Compounds dissolve in rainwater and turn it acidic b. SO 2 from burning coal makes Sulfurous Acid i. H 2 SO 3 c. NO 2 from car exhaust i. (redox reaction with water: gives 2 nitric acids and NO) iv. Acidic/Basic Properties 1. React with water H + 2. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 3. Non-redox reactions 4. Acts as Lewis acid a. Accepts pair of electrons i. These e - make a covalent bond between acid and base 5. Combination reaction II. Lewis Acids/Bases a. All bases have a lone pair b. Ionization of HCl i. As bond between H + and H 2 O forms, the bond between H + and Cl - breaks c. CO 2 as acid i. Water attaches to CO 2 but one H + migrates to free O with 3 lone pairs around it III. Less Soluble Oxides a. Nonmetals i. CO – carbon monoxide
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ii. N 2 O – nitrous oxide, laughing gas iii. NO – nitric oxide IV.Soluble Oxides a. Metals i. MgO 1. MgO (s) + HCl MgCl + H 2 O 2. Basic Property of MgO by dissolving the solid ii. CaO iii. SrO iv. BaO v. Solubility increases as you go down the periodic table vi. Al 2 O 3 1. Amphoteric vii.Al(OH) 3 1. Al 2 (SO 4 ) 3 + 6NaOH 2Al(OH) 3(s) + 3Na
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