Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Development I. Human Development a....

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Chapter 8: Development I. Human Development a. Study of changes in people from conception to birth II. Research in Developmental Psychology a. Cross-sectional i. Compare different age groups at one time (ex. Age 20, 40, 60 all in 2008) ii. Problem 1. Can’t say that differences are due to age differences 2. Could be due to environment people grew up in (Great Depression) a. Cohort effects – effects due to the group/time you grew up in b. Longitudinal i. Same group compared at different times/ages c. Cross-Sequential i. More recent ii. Subjects of different ages compared at several points in time III. Genetics and Development a. Genetics i. Science of inherited traits b. DNA i. Molecule containing organism’s genetic material c. Gene i. Section of DNA having same arrangement of chemical elements IV.Prenatal development a. Monozygotic Twins i. One egg, one sperm, egg divides ii. Identical Twins iii. Same sex w/ identical features and same genome b. Dizygotic Twins i. Two eggs, two sperm ii. Fraternal Twins iii. Not genetically same, just like any brother/sister c. Critical Periods i. Optimal time frame when certain events take place to ensure that development occurs properly ii. Good prenatal care (vitamins/supplements) d. Teratogens i. Environmental agents that can cause: 1. Deviations in normal development 2. Possibly serious abnormalities V. Newborns a. Reflexes are adaptive i. Nourishment
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iii. Avoid Harm VI.Infant Reflexes a. Five reflexes for survival i. Stepping ii. Grasping iii. Moro – startle iv. Sucking v. Rooting 1. Touch their cheek, they will turn to that direction VII. Motor Development a. Motor milestones i. Raising head and chest ii. Rolling over iii. Sitting up iv. Crawling v. Walking VIII. The Four Developmental Domains a. Cognitive i. Thinking ii. Problem Solving iii. Memory b. Social i. Personality ii. Relationships iii. Sense of being male/female c. Moral i. Understanding right/wrong d. Physical i. Motor skills ii. Primary, secondary sex characteristics IX.Developing Brain a. Increasing complexity of neural networks due to input X. Stages of Languages Development a. Cooing (vowels) b. Babbling (Vowels and consonants) c. One-word speech (holophrases) d. Telegraphic Speech e. Whole Sentences f. Vocabulary changes exponentially higher as get older
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Development I. Human Development a....

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