Language - I Language a System for combining symbols to...

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I. Language a. System for combining symbols to communicate and to represent mental activity II. Levels of Language a. Morpheme i. smallest unit of speech containing meaning ii. Example: Played 2 morphemes = play and “ed” b. Phoneme i. Basic unit of sound in a language ii. Different sounds for same latter c. Grammar i. System of rules governing structure and use of language d. Syntax i. System of rules for combining phrases and words to form a grammatically correct language 1. Every language is different e. Pragmatics i. Practical aspects of communicating with others in a social context ii. How we communicate in different social contexts iii. Emphasis on certain words for different connotations 1. Ex. Taking turns talking III. Aspects of Human Language a. Arbitrary (subjective) i. Symbols (words) do not directly map onto a map 1. Gift = poison in German b. Generative i. Can create an infinite # of sentences c. Semantic (meaning) i. Deep structure: meaning within sentence ii. Surface structure: how sentence is formed 1. Ex. “The dog bit the mailman” or “the mailman was bit by the
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