Philosophy Exam 1 Study guide

Philosophy Exam 1 Study guide - Study Guide Focus on the...

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1 Study Guide: Focus on the major arguments of the readings, as well as philosophical content. (For ex- ample, you do not need to know when and where Aristotle was born.) The headings in the lecture materials also indicate major points of the readings. Lecture One (Introduction) will not be included. Utilitarianism: Jeremy Bentham was the leader in the utilitarian movement Based on the greatest happiness principle - Difference between Act- vs. Rule-Utilitarianism Act-utilitarianism = 2-tier model of moral justification 1. principle of utility = (greatest happiness for the greatest number) 2. apply the principle of utility to every particular act being contemplated. Rule-utilitarianism = 3-tier model of moral justification 1. principle of utility 2. pick general social rules that will generate better consequences in the long run. 3. decide which act to perform based on the guidelines of the social rule given the principle of utility criterion - Principle of Utility The principle of utility states that actions or behaviors are right in so far as they promote happiness or pleasure , wrong as they tend to produce unhappiness or pain . The greatest happiness for the greatest number. everyone desires happiness - Concept of Happiness for Mill According to Mill, happiness is based on pleasure and pain. Human beings desire pleas- ure and want to avoid pain. Mill believes that only an expert who is knowlegeable of both pleasures can determine which is superior. - Instrumental vs. Intrinsic desirability Something is instrumentally desirable when it is desired because it promotes pleasure. For example, you go to a dentist because you want to feel less pain in the long run. Typically, you do not go to the dentist just for the sake of going to the dentist. Something is intrinsically desirable , if it is desired for its own sake—it is intrinsically pleasurable. The paradigmatic example of something intrinsically pleasurable is pleasure. We desire pleasure just because it is pleasurable. - Apply utilitarianism to a case study
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1 Kantian Ethics: - Second Formulation of the Categorical Imperative: The formulation of the End in itself "Act in such a way that you always treat the humanity, whether in your own per- son or in the person of any other, never simply as a means but always at the same time as an end." the principle is "Act with reference to every rational being (whether yourself or another) so that it is an end in itself in your maxim…", meaning the rational being is "the basis of all maxims of action" and "must be treated never as a mere means but as the supreme limiting condition in the use of all means, i.e., as an end at the same time." Difference between treating someone as a mere means vs. a means: Using somebody as a means is moral according to Kant. An example of using someone as
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Philosophy Exam 1 Study guide - Study Guide Focus on the...

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