Coon12e_PPT_CH3 - Chapter 3 Human Development Heredity • Developmental psychology The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities •

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Human Development Heredity • Developmental psychology: The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities • Heredity (nature): Genetic transmission of physical and psychological characteristics from parents to their children • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid): Molecular structure shaped like a double helix that contains coded genetic information Genes • Specific areas on a strand of DNA that carry hereditary information – Dominant: The gene’s feature will appear each time the gene is present – Recessive: The gene’s feature will appear only if it is paired with another recessive gene – Still only 25% chance trait will be expressed Polygenic Characteristics • Personal traits or physical properties that are influenced by many genes working in combination Developmental Level • An individual’s current state of physical, emotional, and intellectual development Environment (Nurture) • All external conditions that affect a person, especially the effects of learning Prenatal Issues • Congenital problem: A problem or defect that occurs during prenatal development; “birth defect” • Genetic disorder: Problem caused by inherited characteristics from parents (e.g., cystic fibrosis) Teratogens • Anything capable of directly causing birth defects (e.g., narcotics, radiation, cigarette smoke, lead, and cocaine) Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS) • Caused by repeated heavy alcohol consumption during pregnancy • Infants: – Have low birth weight, a small head, body defects, and facial malformations – Lack cupid’s bow, the bow-shaped portion of the upper lip (look in the mirror to see) Sensitive Period • A period of increased sensitivity to environmental influences; also, a time when certain events must occur for normal development to take place Environments: Deprivation and Enrichment • Deprivation: Lack of normal stimulation, nutrition, comfort, or love • Enrichment: When an environment is deliberately made more complex and intellectually stimulating and emotionally supportive Reaction Range • Limits that one’s environment places on the effects of heredity Temperament and Environment • Temperament: The inherited physical “core” of personality; includes sensitivity, irritability, distractibility, and typical mood (Kagan, 2000) Easy Children • 40%; relaxed and agreeable Difficult Children • 10%; moody, intense, easily angered Slow-to-Warm-Up Children • 15%; restrained, unexpressive, shy Remaining Children • Do not fit into any specific category (Chess & Thomas, 1986) Newborns (Neonates) and Their Reflexes Grasping Reflex • If an object is placed in the neonate’s palm, she’ll grasp it automatically • All reflexes are automatic responses (i.e., they come from nature, not nurture) Rooting Reflex • Lightly touch the infant’s cheek and he’ll turn toward the object and attempt to nurse; helps infant find bottle or breast Sucking Reflex • Touch an object or nipple to the infant’s mouth and she’ll make rhythmic sucking movements Moro Reflex...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Smigla during the Fall '10 term at Joliet Junior College.

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Coon12e_PPT_CH3 - Chapter 3 Human Development Heredity • Developmental psychology The study of progressive changes in behavior and abilities •

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