Coon12e_PPT_CH6-1 - Chapter 6 States of Consciousness Some...

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Chapter 6 States of Consciousness
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Some Early Definitions Consciousness: All the sensations, perceptions, memories, and feelings you are aware of at any instant Waking consciousness: Normal, clear alert awareness Altered state of consciousness (ASC): Changes that occur in quality and pattern of mental activity; different from waking consciousness
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More on Sleep Sleep-deprivation psychosis: Confusion, disorientation, delusions, and hallucinations that occur because of sleep loss Sleep patterns: Daily rhythms of sleep and waking
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Measuring Sleep Changes Electroencephalograph (EEG): Brain-wave machine; amplifies and records electrical activity in the brain Beta waves: Small, fast waves associated with alertness and wakefulness Alpha waves: Large, slow waves associated with relaxation and falling asleep
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Stages of Sleep
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Stage 1 Small, irregular waves produced in light sleep (people may or may not say they were asleep) Hypnic jerk: Reflex muscle twitch
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Stage 2 Deeper sleep; sleep spindles (short bursts of distinctive brain-wave activity) appear
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Stage 3 Deeper sleep; delta waves appear; very large and slow
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Stage 4 Deepest level of normal sleep; almost purely delta waves
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Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep Associated with dreaming; sleep is very light Return to Stage 1 sleep EEG patterns Body is very still during REM sleep
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Non-REM (NREM) Sleep Occurs during stages 1, 2, 3, and 4; no rapid eye movement occurs 90 percent of non-REM sleep is dream-free Seems to help us recover from daily fatigue
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Sleep Disturbances Insomnia: Difficulty in getting to sleep, frequent nighttime awakenings, or waking too early Sleeping pills exacerbate insomnia; cause decrease in REM and Stage 4 sleep and may cause dependency Drug-dependency insomnia: Sleeplessness that follows withdrawal from sleeping pills Lack of muscle paralysis during REM sleep is called REM behavioral disorder
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Temporary Insomnia Brief period of sleeplessness caused by worry, stress, and excitement Avoid fighting it and read a book, for example, until you’re struggling to stay awake
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Chronic Insomnia Exists if sleeping troubles last for more than three weeks Adopt regular schedule; go to bed at the same time each night, for example
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Stimulus Control Linking a particular response with specific stimuli
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Tryptophan Amino acid (chemical) that increases serotonin levels and therefore leads to sleepiness
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Sleep Disturbances Sleepwalking (somnambulism): Occurs in NREM sleep during Stages 3 and 4 Sleeptalking: Speaking while asleep; occurs in NREM sleep
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Some Other Sleep Disturbances Nightmares: Bad dreams that occur during REM sleep May occur once or twice a month; brief and easily (unfortunately) remembered Imagery rehearsal: Mentally rehearse the changed dream before you go to sleep again; may help to eliminate nightmares
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Night Terrors Night terrors: Total panic occurs; hallucinations may occur during Stage 4 NREM sleep Most common in childhood; may occur in adults Not remembered
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Smigla during the Fall '10 term at Joliet Junior College.

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Coon12e_PPT_CH6-1 - Chapter 6 States of Consciousness Some...

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