Coon12e_PPT_CH8 - Chapter 8 Memory Memory: Some Key Terms...

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Chapter 8 Memory
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Memory: Some Key Terms Memory: Active system that stores, organizes, alters, and recovers (retrieves) information Encoding: Converting information into a useable form Storage: Holding this information in memory for later use Retrieval: Taking memories out of storage
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Sensory Memory Sensory memory: Storing an exact copy of incoming information for a few seconds or less (either what is seen or heard); the first stage of memory Iconic memory: A mental image or visual representation Echoic memory: After a sound is heard, a brief continuation of the activity in the auditory system
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Short-Term Memory (STM) Storing small amounts of information briefly Working memory: Part of STM; like a mental “scratchpad” Selective attention: Focusing (voluntarily) on a selected portion of sensory input (e.g., selective hearing) Phonetically: Storing information by sound; how most things are stored in STM Very sensitive to interruption or interference
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Long-Term Memory (LTM) Storing meaningful information relatively permanently Stored on basis of meaning and importance
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Short-Term Memory Concepts Digit span: Test of attention and short-term memory; string of numbers is recalled forward or backward Magic number 7 (±2): STM is limited to holding seven (plus or minus two) information bits at once Information bit: Meaningful single piece of information, like numbers or letters
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More Short-Term Memory Concepts Recoding: Reorganizing or modifying information to assist storage in memory Information chunks: Bits of information that are grouped into larger units
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Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating information silently to prolong its presence in STM
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Elaborative Encoding Links new information with existing memories and knowledge in LTM Good way to transfer STM information into LTM
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Long-Term Memory Concepts Constructive processing: Updating memories on basis of logic, reasoning, or adding new information Pseudo-memories: False memories that a person believes are true or accurate
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Cognitive Interview Use of various cues and strategies to improve eyewitness memory
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Coon12e_PPT_CH8 - Chapter 8 Memory Memory: Some Key Terms...

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