Coon12e_PPT_CH12 - Chapter 12 Personality Defining Some...

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Chapter 12 Personality
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Defining Some Terms Personality: A person’s unique long-term pattern of thinking, emotion, and behavior; the consistency of who you are, have been, and will become Character: Personal characteristics that have been judged or evaluated; desirable or undesirable qualities Temperament: Hereditary aspects of personality, including sensitivity, moods, irritability, and distractibility
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Some More Terms Personality traits: Stable qualities that a person shows in most situations Behavioral genetics: Study of inherited behavioral traits Personality type: People who have several traits in common
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Personality Types and Other Concepts Carl Jung, Swiss psychiatrist who was a Freudian disciple, believed that we are one of two personality types: Introvert: Shy, reserved, self-centered person whose attention is focused inward Extrovert: Bold, outgoing person whose attention is directed outward Self-concept: Your ideas, perceptions, and feelings about who you are Self-esteem: A positive evaluation of oneself
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Personality Theories: An Overview Personality theory: System of concepts, assumptions, ideas, and principles proposed to explain personality Includes four perspectives:
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Trait Theories Attempt to learn what traits make up personality and how they relate to actual behavior
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Psychodynamic Theories Focus on the inner workings of personality, especially internal conflicts and struggles
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Behavioristic and Social Learning Theories Focus on external environment and on effects of conditioning and learning Attribute difference in personality to socialization, expectations, and mental processes
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Humanistic Theories Focus on private, subjective experience and personal growth
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Gordon Allport and Traits Common traits: Characteristics shared by most members of a culture Individual traits: Define a person’s unique personal qualities Cardinal traits: So basic that all of a person’s activities can be traced back to the trait Central traits: Core qualities of a personality Secondary traits: Inconsistent or superficial aspects of a person (e.g., musical tastes)
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Raymond Cattell and Traits Surface traits: Features that make up the visible features of personality Source traits: Underlying characteristics of a personality Trait profile: Graph of the scores on several personality traits
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The “Big Five” Personality Factors Extroversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Neuroticism Openness to experience
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Traits and Situations Trait-situation interactions: When external circumstances influence the expression of personality traits
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Psychoanalytic Theory and Sigmund Freud, M.D. Freud was a Viennese physician who thought
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Coon12e_PPT_CH12 - Chapter 12 Personality Defining Some...

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