An age-related disease characterized by memory loss, mental confusion, and in its later stages,
by a nearly total loss of mental abilities.
A person who lacks a conscience, is emotionally shallow, impulsive, selfish, and tends to
Apprehension, dread, or uneasiness similar to fear but based on an unclear threat.
Disruptive feelings of fear, apprehension, or anxiety, or distortions in behavior that are anxiety
Anxiety reduction hypothesis
Explains the self-defeating nature of avoidance responses as a result of the
reinforcing effects of relief from anxiety.
Learning that occurs when making a particular response delays or prevents the onset of a
painful or unpleasant stimulus.
Any approach that emphasizes overt, observable behavior and the effects of learning and conditioning.
A disturbance of the body’s chemical systems, especially in brain chemicals or
Emotional disorders involving both depression and mania or hypomania.
Bipolar I disorder
A mood disorder in which a person has episodes of mania (excited, hyperactive, energetic,
grandiose behavior) and also periods of deep depression.
Bipolar II disorder
A mood disorder in which a person is mostly depressed (sad, despondent, guilt ridden) but has
also had one or more episodes of mild mania (hypomania).
Schizophrenia marked by stupor, rigidity, unresponsiveness, posturing, mutism, and,
sometimes, agitated, purposeless behavior.
Holds that distorted thinking causes people to magnify ordinary threats and failures, leading to
anxiety and distress.