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Theories_of_Development__Cheat_Sheet_

Theories_of_Development__Cheat_Sheet_ - Theories of...

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Theories of Development Psychoanalytic Perspective : Development is shaped by unconscious forces that motivate human behavior. Stage theory 2 major theorists: 1. Sigmund Freud: Psychosexual Theory - unvarying sequence of stages of personality development during infancy, childhood, and adolescence, in which gratification shifts from the mouth to the anus to the genitals. Adult personality forms in childhood and any fixations can influence the adult personality. Fixation: arrest in development. Major development event Oedipus/Elektra complex- occurs in ‘phallic stage’ children form a sexual attachment to opposite sex parent and want to harm the same sex parent whom the child sees as a rival for the opposite sex parent’s affection. Overcoming this and identifying with the same sex parent is normal development in Freudian terms. 3 parts of personality: ID- present at birth-basic biological needs and desires, unconscious. EGO- develops shortly after birth- conscious, rationally, main job is to redirect id’s impulses so that they get what they want in an acceptable way or is managed if they can’t get what they want. SUPEREGO- develops after Oedipus complex is resolved- unconscious, conscience, values of society. Freud’s Psychosexual stages: Stage Age range Source of Pleasure Fixations Oral Birth-12-18 months Mouth-oriented activities (sucking feeding) Oral fixation: overeating, smoking, gum chewing Anal 12-18 months-3 years Withholding and expelling feces. Toilet training is important activity Anal retentive: obsessively clean, ‘frugal’ Anal expulsive: overly messy, big spender Phallic 3 years to 6 years Genital region. Oedipus/Elektra complex as explained previously Non-identification with same sex parent, identity confusion Latency 6 years to puberty Time of relative calm Calm, lack of interest in sex Genital Puberty through Adulthood Reemergence of sexual impulses of phallic stage, channeled into none
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mature adult sexuality 2. Erik Erikson: Psychosocial Development : 8 stage theory, socially and culturally influenced process of development of the ego/self. Development is a life-long emphasis on influence of society. Each stage is a crisis-a theme that is important at that time and will remain an issue through rest of life- it is stage theory; however, because it remains an issue, it is also somewhat continuous.
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