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Unformatted text preview: -Advocate recovery of ALL objects-sequence dating-total recording of the excavation-schools-full publication Advocate recover y of allobjectsAdvocat ed 3. loses popular ity 2. gains popular ity 1. comes into culture Introduction to Archaeology o 4 Sub-Disciplines of Anthropology Physical Anthropology/Biological Archaeology Cultural Anthropology Linguistic Anthropology o Jackson Ambani is a witch doctor in Kenya Anthropology is looking at similarities and differences among cultures and asking why Clifford Geertz says aim of anthropology is to enlarge the universe of human discourse o Archaeology studies human behavior and human past using material remains o The concept of culture unifies these subdisciplines o Edward Tyler defines culture as the: complex whole of knowledge, belief, art, laws, language, belief, morals, or customs or anything that a person acquires as a member of a society o Culture provides primary means for non-genetic adaptation to our world o Archaeology: the scientific study of the human past; anything left behind by intended or unintended Focus on material remains consequences of behavior that no longer exists Eg. Ruins, tools, pottery, jewelry, garbage, graves, plants o Archaeology isnt about spectacular finds and isnt a pseudoscience 1. Prehistoric Archaeology- Covers all the time from when there isnt any writing 2. Classical Archaeology- focuses heavily on text, art, and architecture (rome, Egypt) 3. Historical Archaeology- use written record to supplement but focus on more recent historical times- colonial, slave time, medieval times, 4. Underwater Archaeology- o 3 main goals of Archaeology: 1) Culture history : chronology of the past; 2) reconstruct past human lifeways ; 3) Understand change through time (why did human cultures change) o Why is it important to study the past? Understand past people and societies Understand how we have come to be in the world we live in People respond to challenges & events that we face today Provides us as individuals with an identity but also provides cultures with identity History of Archaeology o 3 key conceptual advances in modern archaeology (1) Understanding the antiquity of the earth and humankind Creation myths and origin stories affect the way we ask questions about our physical world Yanomamo Indians version of how they came to the Earth Napoleon Chognon studied Yanomamo Cosmos o Empty layer o The sky o The earth o Village of spirit men Hessiod s 5-Stages of human Past mirrors Age of Gold-peace & veggies Age of Silver-men are less noble Age of Bronze (Brazen)-ppl are warlike Age of Epic Heroes-more noble again Age of Iron-slavery & toil, war, hate, labor, sorrow Archbishop James Ussher (17 th c.) makes a sophisticated, biblical guess Earth was created in 4,004 BC they found stone tools as proof of past human cultures but they had no belief in human history besides their own and couldnt fit this into their own conceptual framework...
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- Fall '10