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Unformatted text preview: -Advocate recovery of ALL objects-sequence dating-total recording of the excavation-schools-full publication Advocate recover y of allobjectsAdvocat ed 3. loses popular ity 2. gains popular ity 1. comes into culture Introduction to Archaeology o 4 Sub-Disciplines of Anthropology • Physical Anthropology/Biological • Archaeology • Cultural Anthropology • Linguistic Anthropology o Jackson Ambani is a witch doctor in Kenya Anthropology is looking at similarities and differences among cultures and asking why • Clifford Geertz says “aim of anthropology is to enlarge the universe of human discourse” o Archaeology studies human behavior and human past using material remains o The concept of culture unifies these subdisciplines o Edward Tyler defines culture as the: “complex whole of knowledge, belief, art, laws, language, belief, morals, or customs or anything that a person acquires as a member of a society” o Culture provides primary means for non-genetic adaptation to our world o Archaeology: the scientific study of the human past; anything left behind by intended or unintended • Focus on material remains consequences of behavior that no longer exists ◊ Eg. Ruins, tools, pottery, jewelry, garbage, graves, plants o Archaeology isn’t about spectacular finds and isn’t a pseudoscience 1. Prehistoric Archaeology- Covers all the time from when there isn’t any writing 2. Classical Archaeology- focuses heavily on text, art, and architecture (rome, Egypt) 3. Historical Archaeology- use written record to supplement but focus on more recent historical times- colonial, slave time, medieval times, 4. Underwater Archaeology- o 3 main goals of Archaeology: 1) Culture history : chronology of the past; 2) reconstruct past human lifeways ; 3) Understand change through time (why did human cultures change) o Why is it important to study the past? • Understand past people and societies • Understand how we have come to be in the world we live in • People respond to challenges & events that we face today • Provides us as individuals with an identity but also provides cultures with identity History of Archaeology o 3 key conceptual advances in modern archaeology • (1) Understanding the antiquity of the earth and humankind ◊ Creation myths and origin stories affect the way we ask questions about our physical world • Yanomamo Indians version of how they came to the Earth Napoleon Chognon studied Yanomamo Cosmos o Empty layer o The sky o The earth o Village of spirit men • Hessiod’ s 5-Stages of human Past mirrors Age of Gold-peace & veggies Age of Silver-men are less noble Age of Bronze (Brazen)-ppl are warlike Age of Epic Heroes-more noble again Age of Iron-slavery & toil, war, hate, labor, sorrow ◊ Archbishop James Ussher (17 th c.) makes a sophisticated, biblical guess Earth was created in 4,004 BC • they found stone tools as proof of past human cultures but they had no belief in human history besides their own and couldn’t fit this into their own conceptual framework ◊...
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- Fall '10
- Archaeology, stone tools, Stone tool