Archaeology Final - Archaeology Final (additional readings-...

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Archaeology Final (additional readings- 344-57, 408, 416-20, 450-81) o Changes in upper Paleolithic amount to a revolution in terms of human behavior- Expansion of subsistence Expansion of technology Movement of hominids Occupation of new environments Inequality o Upper Paleolithic ~40,000kya-10,000kya (but some evidence suggests maybe earlier- book suggests 50,000) Fully glacial environment- Europe is very cold and very dry- peak at 20,000kya Towards end of Pleistocene in U.P, we see a warming trend Homo sapiens sapiens Technology- change from flake-based to blade technology (blade is just an elongated flake)- now a 100 different kinds of tools Predominance of microliths New technology- punch-strut- using a core and taking something sharp & with indirect percussion, Composite tools(tools made of two different materials- first real evidence in upper Paleolithic) Diversity of tools- bones, shells Textiles
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Subsistence- 2 strategies- broad spectrum subsistence strategies- large & small animals, reindeer, mammoth, horses, Upper Paleolithic people were relying heavily on mammoths (shelter, clothing, food)at dolni vestonice, Czech republic ~25k Social behavior o Storage o Shelter-dolni- huts, o Sites look very different – number of sites also is higher than before We see bigger sites o Trade- communication between groups o Fire- complex hearths, kilns o Personal adornment- suggests beauty, o Art o Burials common- elaborate grave goods sungir, Russia Adult male-60- 3000 worked beads- adorned the cap, strands of beads around the body, hands crossed across the pelvis Male boy- 13 years old – femur buried next to him filled with red ochre Female 7-9 years old 5200 ivory beads Beads for children took 3500 hours of work to complete- means that status is no longer achieved but it is ascribed o Status differentiation o Evidence for warfare Jebel sahaba, Sudan 13, 700 kya- 60 burials – good evidence for warfare-violent deaths o Cultural Phases of the UP o Aurignacian ~ 34-27,000 - where we see first art, focus on blade production, begin using bone, antler, ivory at unprecedented levels o Gravettian ~27-21,000-Venus figurines
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o Solutrean ~21-16,000- leaf shaped stone tools (exquisite) o Magdalenian 16- 11,000- rock art o Upper Paleolithic- adorned with art o First depictions of human beings (female genitalia) o Venus figurines-common set of characteristics- focus on torso, exaggerated female characteristics (breasts, ass, hips, thighs, etc. Faceless, Downturned heads, Thin arms (disappear under breast or cover breast or vag), Large breasts Exaggerated ass-suggests condition called steatopygia- extreme fat accumulation in hips Protruding abdomens- may indicate pregnancy Legs are disproportionately short Feet are disproportionately small if they have them at all- we think maybe the figurines were being stuck in the earth- we recover them near cave walls or in/near hearths- as
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Archaeology Final - Archaeology Final (additional readings-...

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