Introduction to Human Evolution

Introduction to Human Evolution - Time Gorilla Chimp...

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Time (old-new) Gorilla Chimp Bonobos Orangutan Human Introduction to Human Evolution o Linguistics o Cultural o Archeology o Biological Genetics Primatology Human Evolution Ecology o How science works and the history of evolutionary thought Starts with good question/interesting observation Develop an explanation A THEORY TEST the theory Analyze the RESULTS Revise or reject your theory o Galileo one of the first to do experiments (1564-1642) o Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778) - taxonomy : the science of describing and classifying Genus : group of similar species w/ similar adaptations Should be capitalized o Georges Cuvier (1769-1892)- catastrophism: consecutive catastrophes were responsible for extinction of species in the past/species turnover
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Ties it to idea of biblical floods o Jean Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829)- inherited use disuse: believed the environment would affect the future shape and organization of animals o Thomas Hutton (1700s) and Charles Lyell (1800s) uniformitarianism: small, incremental changes to the earth are the same mechanisms that create big changes over long periods of time o Thomas Malthus 1700s-1800s: population grows faster than resources o Charles Darwin (1800s) during voyage on HMS Beagle, notices that animals in similar climates but different locations are different o Alfred Russell Wallace (182 3 -1913) goes to southeast Asia and sees descendents of mainland species in Australia Darwin and Wallace do a dual presentation on natural selection 1859- Darwin publishes Origin of Species natural selection Variation in all populations Variation is heritable (genetically passed on) but Darwin didn’t know how *this variation leads to differences in fitness (survival, reproduction (# of surviving offspring) Over time, over many generations, individuals will leave more surviving offspring that look like them…whole populations/species will change o Initial Population of bears example Darker bears can’t hunt as well so they die out Next generation will be lighter fur Entire population shifts incrementally generation by generation **Fitness is a measure for an individual, not a species o Charles Darwin’s evidence: Geographical distribution of species : species related to others nearby, NOT to those in similar habitats in other locations Artificial selection by humans: certain traits are being selected by humans Vestigial organs: organs that don’t serve a purpose due to evolution (ex. Useless eyes in cave species) Ontogeny and development: more closely related species are more similar in their development Homology of structure: similar characteristics in different species that serve similar purposes (forelimb of human, cat, whale, bat) o Difficulties in Theory Transitional forms? -->need for complete fossil record Fish to land (fish-amphibian) Reptile-bird Reptile-mammal Whales
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Introduction to Human Evolution - Time Gorilla Chimp...

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