# ch12 - Learning Outcomes[Z&B p 300 After studying this...

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CHAPTER 12 - SAMPLING DESIGNS AND SAMPLING PROCEDURES Learning Outcomes: [Z&B, p. 300] After studying this chapter, you should be able to: 1. Explain reasons for taking a sample rather than a complete census. 2. Describe the process of identifying a target population and selecting a sampling frame. 3. Compare random sampling and systematic (nonsampling) errors with an emphasis on how the Internet is intertwined with this issue. 4. Identify the types of nonprobability sampling, including their advantages and disadvantages. 5. Summarize various types of probability samples. 6. Discuss how to choose an appropriate sample design. I. Obtaining Information From / About A Population A. Population of Interest or Population (Universe) [Z&B, p. 301] = any complete group of entities that share some common set of characteristics a.k.a. the Target Population entire collection of entities (elements) from or about whom information is needed people, organizations have a common set of attributes that identify the group what distinguishes members of the Population of Interest from non-members

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B. Population Element [Z&B, p. 301] = an individual member of a population one individual member of a Population of Interest C. Census [Z&B, p. 301] = an investigation of all the individual elements that make up a population attempt to obtain data from or about every member of the Population of Interest D. Sampling [Z&B, p. 58] = involves any procedure that draws conclusions based on measurements of a portion of the population use parts (subsets) of a Population of Interest to make conclusions about the whole Population of Interest E. Sample [Z&B, p. 301] = a subset, or some part, of a larger population a part or a subset of a Population of Interest F. Sampling Unit [Z&B, p. 307] = a single element or group of elements subject to selection in the sample one individual Population Element included in the sample II. When to Sample (rather than to Census) ? [see Z&B, pp. 301-303] A. When conducting a Census is not practical due to: 1. Cost Considerations M303 -- Chapter 12 Study Guide - Page 2
a census requires more effort to conduct than a sample 2. Time Considerations a census requires more effort to conduct than a sample B. When conducting a Census may provide less accurate results than a Sample could provide due to the use of: 1. Better Control need to train and manage fewer field workers in a sample than in a census 2. Better Instrument due to data analysis workload, a more thorough questionnaire can be administered in a sample than in a census C. When conducting a Census is not possible due to: 1. Destruction of Sample Test Units exposure to research study precludes future use of the Population Element III. Seven Steps in Selecting a Sample A. The Seven (Stages) Steps [see Z&B, Ex. 12.1] 1. Step 1 - Define the Population of Interest [see Z&B, pp. 304-305] Specify the common set of attributes that you are interested in "Whom do you want to talk to?" M303 -- Chapter 12 Study Guide - Page 3

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2. Step 2 - Select A Sampling Frame [see Z&B, pp. 306-307] Sampling Frame [Z&B, p. 306]
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