ICS233_Lecture2 Slides

ICS233_Lecture2 Slides - Computer Architecture Assembly...

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1 Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A RNaseer 1 ICS 233 ICS 233 Computer Architecture & Computer Architecture & Assembly Language Assembly Language Lecture 2 Lecture 2 Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A 2 Computer Growth Computer Growth ICS 233 ICS 233 Computer Architecture & Computer Architecture & Assembly Language Assembly Language
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2 Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A RNaseer 3 Computer Growth So far… During 1970s, Mainframes and minicomputers dominated the industry Performance improved 25% to 30% per year mostly due to improved architectures and some technological developments Late 1970s – emergence of the microprocessor (Improvement in IC Technology) which led to higher rate of improvement – roughly 35% growth per year in performance Microprocessor based computers became Commercially successful due to o Virtual elimination of assembly language programming to reduce the need for object-code compatibility (High level Programming) o Creation of standardized vendor-independent operating systems, such as UNIX and its clone, Linux o Mass Production In the early 1980s, successful development of a new set of architectures called RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer) RISC-based machines focused on two critical performance techniques o Exploitation of instruction level parallelism (pipelining, multiple instruction issue) o Use of caches Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A 4 Computer Growth So far… VAX : 25%/year 1978 to 1986 RISC + x86: 52%/year 1986 to 2002 RISC + x86: ??%/year 2002 to present Combination of architectural & organizational enhancements and efficient use of technology improvements led to 20 years of sustained growth in performance at an annual rate of over 50%
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3 Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A RNaseer 5 From Intel 386 to Pentium 4 Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A 6
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4 RNaseer 7 Currently Multi-Core Architectures Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A 8 Implementation Technology Trends ¾ Four implementation technologies of interest Integrated circuit logic ± Transistor density: increases by ~35% per year ± Die size: increases by ~10-20% per year ± The combined effect is a growth rate in transistor count on a chip of about ~55% per year Semiconductor DRAM ± Capacity increases by ~40-60% per year ± Cycle time has not decreased as much: ~33% over 10 years ± Bandwidth has increased: about ~66% more over 10 years ± Also, changes to the interface have helped further improve bandwidth Magnetic disk technology ± Recently, capacity improving by ~100% every year (quadrupling in two years) ± Access time has improved by one-third in 10 years Network technology ± More improvements in bandwidth, less in latency ± Bandwidth doubling every year in US ± Gigabit Ethernet available
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5 Lecture Slides on Computer Arch & Assembly Lang ICS 233 @ Dr A RNaseer 9 DRAM Costs Prices of six generation of DRAMS (from 16K bits to 64Mbits) Lecture Slides on Computer Arch
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course ICS 253 taught by Professor Arnasser during the Spring '10 term at GWU.

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ICS233_Lecture2 Slides - Computer Architecture Assembly...

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