Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary...

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Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary Bases of Behavior 1) Heredity and Behavior a) Casual Explanation focuses on nature vs. nurture and heredity vs. environment b) Evolution and Natural Selection i) Charles Darwin - created the theory of evolution and the theory of natural selection ii) Natural Selection - those species that are more equipped to survive in a given environment live and pass those traits on to their offspring iii) Peter and Rosemary Grant - followed the population size of the finches on one of the Galapagos Islands iv) Survival of the fittest- the members of the species that possess the range of physical and psychological attributes best adapted to the environment are most likely to survive v) Genotype - particular genetic structure vi) Phenotype - the outward appearance and repertory of behaviors of an organism (1) Competition- phenotypes help determine which individual members are better adapted to ensure survival vii)Bipedalism- the ability to walk upright (1) Allowed for the exploration of new environments, exploitation of new resources viii) Encephalization- increases in brain size (1) Increased intelligence, complex thinking, reasoning, remembering, and planning skills ix) Language- the basis of cultural evolution (the tendency of cultures to respond adaptively, through learning to environmental change) c) Variation in the Human Genotype i) Heredity - the inheritance of physical and psychological traits from ancestors ii) Genetics - the study of the mechanisms of heredity iii) Gregor Mendel - created the earliest systematic research exploring the relationship between parents and their offspring (garden pea) iv) DNA - deoxyribonucleic acid- the genetic material in the nucleus of every human cell v) Genes - the tiny units into which DNA is organized (1) Contain the instructions for the production of proteins (2) Proteins regulate body’s physiological processes and expression of phenotypic traits like body build, physical strength, intelligence, and behavior patterns (3) Genes found on chromosomes (a) Sex Chromosomes - those that contain genes coding for development of male or female physical characteristics (XX for female, XY for male) (4) Genome - the full sequence of genes found on the chromosomes with the associated DNA (a) 1990- Human Genome Project- attempt to identify all of the 30,000 human genes (b) Working draft of the human genome published in 2000, research ongoing vi) Human Behavior Genetics - field created from the union of genetics and psychology to explore the casual link b/w inheritance and behavior vii)Heritability - the likelihood that a particular trait was inherited as opposed to being the result of environmental influences (1) Measured on scale of 0 to 1
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(2) Near 0-environmental influences; Near 1-genetic influences viii) Adoption studies- researchers obtain as much info as possible about the birth parents of children who are raised in adoptive homes. Ongoing assessment of the relative similarity of children to birth families (genetics) and adoptive families
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 3 - Chapter 3: The Biological and Evolutionary...

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