Chapter 6 psy - Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis...

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Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis 1. The Study of Learning a. What Is Learning? i. Conditioning- the ways in which events and behavior become associated with one another. ii. Plasticity- variability iii. Learning - a process that results in a relatively consistent change in behavior or behavior potential and is based on experience. iv. A Change In Behavior or Behavior Potential 1. Learning is apparent from performance improvement 2. Also evidenced in appreciation or understanding of something 3. Learning-Performance Distinction - the difference between what has been learned and what is expressed, or performed, in overt behavior v. A Relatively Consistent Change 1. Behavior change must be relatively consistent over different occasions to qualify as learned 2. Not always permanent changes; but might be easier to relearn vi. A Process Based On Experience 1. Learning can only take place through experience 2. Experience- taking in info and evaluating and transforming it; making responses that affect environment 3. Learning- response influenced by lessons of memory. Does not include changes that come about b/c of physical maturation or brain development as organism ages, nor those caused by illness or brain damage. b. Behaviorism and Behavior Analysis i. John Watson - founder of behaviorism 1. Wrote Psychology from the Standpoint of a Behaviorist 2. Argued that introspection was not an acceptable means of studying behavior b/c it was too subjective 3. Argued for observable behavior 4. Defined chief goal of psychology as “the prediction and control of behavior” ii. B.F. Skinner - formulated radical behaviorism 1. Acknowledged that evolution provided each species with a repertory of behaviors; all behavior beyond repertory could be understood as the products of simple forms of learning 2. Focused on introspection as legitimate for study of behavior causes a. Mental events are examples of behavior caused by environmental stimuli 3. Behavior Analysis - area of psychology that focuses on discovering environmental determinants of learning and behavior
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a. Attempts to discover regularities in learning that are universal to all animal species (including humans), under comparable situations b. Assume learning processes are conserved across animal species c. Critical studies w/ nonhuman animals 2. Classical Conditioning: Learning Predictable Signals a. Classical Condition - a basic form of learning in which one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus or event. b. Pavlov’s Surprising Observation i. Ivan Pavlov - performed most famous study on classical conditioning ii. Implanted tubes in glands and digestive organs of dogs so that secretions could be measured and analyzed iii. Secretions produced by putting meat powder in mouths iv. Eventually noticed that dogs started salivating at the mere sight of the food, and later, at the sight of the assistant who brought the food or even the sound of their footsteps v. Continued to search for the variables that influence classically
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 6 psy - Chapter 6: Learning and Behavior Analysis...

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