Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes 1. Studying...

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Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes 1. Studying Cognition a. Cognition - a general term for all forms of knowledge b. Cognitive Psychology - the study of cognition c. Cognitive Science - the multidisciplinary field that supplements the field of cognitive psychology d. Discovering the Processes of the Mind i. F.C. Donders - Dutch psychologist that invented a methodology for studying mental processes ii. Concluded that extra mental steps will often result in more time to perform a task iii. Reaction time- the amount of time it takes experimental participants to perform particular tasks e. Mental Processes and Mental Resources i. Serial Processes - take place one after the other ii. Parallel Processes - overlap in time iii. Blocks often used by cognitive psychologists to determine how a process works 1. Each block = different component 2. Figure out how all blocks fit together 3. Challenge- many different combinations iv. Theorists try to determine whether processes are series or parallel by amount of mental resources process uses v. Attentional processes responsible for distributing limited brain resources vi. Controlled Processes - require attention 1. Often difficult to carry out more than one at a time 2. Can become automatic with sufficient practice vii. Automatic Processes - do not require attention viii. Attentional bottleneck reached when two choices need to be made simultaneously, but can’t ix. In challenging circumstances, what before seemed automatic now requires controlled attention x. Cognitive neuroscientists- often examine the processing distinctions that emerge in cognitive psychological theories to see if those distinctions are paralleled by brain activity xi. ACC- anterior cingulated cortex- plays role in wide range of cognitive and emotional processes. 2. Language Use a. Difference b/w sentence and speaker’s meaning i. Sentence meaning- the generally simple meaning of the combined words of a sentence ii. Speaker’s meaning- the unlimited number of meanings a speaker can communicate by putting a sentence to good use
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b. Psychologists studying language use study both the production and the understanding of speakers’ meaning c. Language Production i. Language Production - concerns both what people choose to say at a given time and the processes they go through to produce the message ii. Audience Design 1. Audience Design - the process of deciding to whom an utterance will be directed, and what knowledge will be shared with members of that audience 2. H. Paul Grice - proposed the cooperative principle a. Phrased as an instruction to speakers, defined four maxims b. Quantity: Make contribution as informative as required c. Quality: Make contribution one that is true d. Relation: Be relevant e. Manner: Avoid obscurity and ambiguity. Be brief and orderly. 3.
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Chapter 8 - Chapter 8: Cognitive Processes 1. Studying...

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