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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Motivation 1 Understanding...

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Chapter 11: Motivation 1) Understanding Motivation a) Motivation - the general term for all the processes involved in starting, directing, and maintaining physical and psychological activities b) Functions of Motivational Concepts i) Five basic purposes of motivation: (1) To relate biology to behavior (2) To account for behavioral variability (3) To infer private states from public acts (4) To assign responsibility for actions (a) People are judged less responsible for their actions when (i) They did not intend negative consequences to occur (ii) External forces were powerful enough to provoke the behaviors (iii) Actions were influenced by drugs, alcohol, or intense emotion (5) To explain perseverance despite adversity c) Sources of Motivation i) Drives and Incentives (1) Clark Hull - suggested that much important behavior was motivated by internal drives (2) Drives - internal states that arise in response to an animal’s physiological needs (a) Aroused when deprivation creates disequlibrium or tension (b) When drives are satisfied, organism ceases to act (3) Homeostasis - a state of equilibrium with respect to biological conditions such as body temperature and energy supply (4) Incentives - external stimuli or rewards that do not relate directly to biological needs ii) Reversal Theory (1) Proposes four pairs of metamotivational states (states that give rise to distinct patterns of motivation) (2) Claims that at any given time, only one of two in each pair can be operative (3) Reversal Theory - seeks to explain human motivation in terms of reversals from one to the other of the opposing states (a) Suggests that one is always in one or the other state but never both simultaneously iii) Instinctual Behaviors and Learning (1) Instincts - preprogrammed tendencies that are essential for the survival of their species (2) Provide repertories of behavior that are part of each animal’s genetic inheritance (3) William James- thought that instincts played even more into human behavior than animal behavior (a) Both human/animal instincts are purposive- they served important purposes, or functions, in the organism’s adaptation to its environment (4) Freud (a) Believed that humans experience drive states arising from life instincts (sex) and death instincts (aggression)
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(b) Instinctive urges direct psychic energy to satisfy bodily needs; tension results when energy cannot be discharged (c) Tension drives people toward activities and objects that will reduce it (5) Ruth Benedict/Margaret Mead- found enormous behavioral variation b/w cultures (6) Each animal displays a combination of learned and instinctive behaviors iv) Expectations and Cognitive Approaches to Motivation (1) Contemporary psychologists believe that significant human motivation comes from subjective interpretations of reality, not objective realities (cognitive analysis) (2) Social-Learning Theory - the probability that you will engage in a given behavior is determined by expectation of attaining a goal that follows the activity and by
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  • Spring '08
  • Canli
  • Sexual intercourse, Human sexual behavior, Orgasm, Sexual response cycle, Sexual behaviors, Nonhuman Sexual Behaviors

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Chapter 11 - Chapter 11 Motivation 1 Understanding...

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