Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Emotion Stress and Health 1...

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Chapter 12: Emotion, Stress, and Health 1) Emotions a) Emotion - a complex pattern of bodily and mental changes that includes physiological arousal, feelings, cognitive processes, visible expressions, and specific behavioral reactions made in response to a situation perceived as personally significant i) Emotions- relatively short lived and relatively intense ii) Moods- less intense and may last several days b) Basic Emotions and Culture i) Darwin viewed emotions as inherited, specialized mental states designed to deal with a certain class of recurring situations in the world ii) Are Some Emotional Responses Innate? (1) Silvan Tomkins- pointed out that infants respond to loud sounds w/ fear or w/ breathing difficulties (2) Culture acts very early in life to have an impact on innate emotional responses (3) Research suggests that infants recognize and have a very early understanding of the “meaning” of facial expressions iii) Are Emotional Expressions Universal? (1) Paul Ekman- leading researcher on nature of facial expressions- all people share an overlap in “facial language” (2) Research suggests seven expressions are recognized and produced worldwide in response to happiness, surprise, anger, disgust, fear, sadness, and contempt (3) Did not claim that all facial expressions are universal or that cultures express all emotions in the same way. (4) Neuro-cultural theory: above theory, reflected contributions of the brain and culture in emotional expression. iv) How Does Culture Constrain Emotional Expression? (1) Cultures establish social rules for when people may show certain emotions and for the social appropriateness of certain types of emotional displays by given types of people in particular settings (2) Individualistic Cultures: emphasize individuals’ needs (3) Collectivist Cultures: emphasize needs of the group (4) Culture always has the last word in emotional expression c) Theories of Emotion i) Physiology of Emotion (1) Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) prepares body for emotional responses through the action of both sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions (a) Sympathetic: more active w/ mild, unpleasant stimulation (b) Parasympathetic: more active w/ mild, pleasant stimulation (2) Strong emotions activate emergency reaction system- swiftly and silently prepares the body for potential danger (a) Sympathetic: directs release of hormones from adrenal glands that raise blood sugar, pressure, and increase sweating and salivation (b) Parasympathetic: inhibits release of activating hormones after danger has passed (3) Research suggests that members of different cultures learn to produce different overt responses for the same underlying bodily experiences
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(4) Integration of both the hormonal and neural aspects of arousal is controlled by hypothalamus and limbic system, control systems for emotions and for patterns of attack, defense, and flight. (5) Amygdala
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Chapter 12 - Chapter 12 Emotion Stress and Health 1...

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