Chapter 17 - Chapter 17: Social Processes, Society, and...

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Chapter 17: Social Processes, Society, and Culture 1) The Power of the Situation a) Roles and Rules i) Social Role - a socially defined pattern of behavior that is expected of a person when functioning in a given setting or group ii) Different social situations make different roles available. iii) Rules - behavioral guidelines for specific settings (1) Some stated explicitly in signs or teachings (2) Implicit rules learned through transactions with others in particular settings (3) Coercive rules- include explicit punishment for violations b) Social Norms - the specific expectations for socially appropriate attitudes and behaviors that are embodied in the stated or implicit rules of a group i) Broad guidelines or specific standards of conduct ii) Belonging to a group typically involves discovering the set of social norms that regulates desired behavior in the group setting iii) Awareness of the norms operating in a given group situation helps orient members and regulate their social interaction c) Conformity - the tendency for people to adopt the behavior and opinions presented by other group members i) Results from: (1) Informational Influence - wanting to be correct and to understand the right way to act in a given situation (2) Normative Influence - wanting to be liked, accepted, and approved of by others. ii) Informational Influence: Sherif’s Autokinetic Effect (1) Norm Crystallization - norm formation and solidification (2) Once a norm is established in a group, it tends to perpetuate itself iii) Normative Influence: The Asch Effect (1) Line experiment (2) Strong conformity effects are elicited w/ a unanimous majority of only three or four people (3) Giving naïve participant a single ally who dissented from the majority opinion had the effect of sharply reducing conformity (4) People will assert their independence on a majority of occasions iv) Conformity in Everyday Life (1) Wearing “fashionable” clothing (2) Peer groups and drug use v) Minority Influence and Nonconformity (1) Majority power even extends to how long it takes people to offer their opinions in private (2) The power of the many may be undercut by the conviction of the dedicated few (3) Minority groups have relatively little normative influence, but they do have informational influence (4) Typically innovation comes from minority members or from individuals who are either dissatisfied w/ current system or able to visualize new options and create
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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Chapter 17 - Chapter 17: Social Processes, Society, and...

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