psych. chap 4 - Dhvani Patel Psychology 103 Chapter 4...

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Dhvani Patel September 28, 2006 Psychology 103 Chapter 4: Sensation and Perception h Sensuality - the quality of being devoted to the gratification of the senses; enjoying the experiences that appeal to your various senses of sight, sound, touch, taste and smell. h Perception - the overall process of apprehending objects and events in the environment- to sense them, understand them, identify and label them, and prepare to react to them ; involves synthesis (integration and combination) h Perception’s Three Stages – sensation, perceptional organization, and identification/recognition of objects. h Percept - the phenomenological, or experienced, outcome of the process of perception. h Sensation- process by which stimulation of sensory receptors produces neural impulses that represent experiences inside and outside the body. h Perceptual Organization - the stage in which an internal representation of an object is formed and a percept of the external stimulus is developed. h Identification and Recognition -the third stage in this sequence and assigns meaning to percepts. h Retinal View - two dimensional image vs. three dimensional environment. h Distal Stimulus- physical object in the world that is distant from the observer; real object in the environment. h Proximal Stimulus- optical image on the retina that is near, proximate, to the observer. h Ambiguity- concept that a single image at the sensory level can result in multiple interpretations at the perceptional and identification levels. h Illusion- experiencing a stimulus pattern in a manner that is demonstrably incorrect. h Psychophysics- the study of the relationship between physical stimuli and the behavior or mental experiences the stimuli evoke. h Gustav Fechner- coined the term psychophysics and provided a set of procedures to relate intensity of a physical stimulus (measured in physical units) to the magnitude of the sensory experience (measured in psychological units). h Absolute Threshold for Stimulation- the minimum amount of physical energy needed to produce a sensory experience. h Psychometric function- a graph that shows the percentage of detections (plotted on a vertical axis) at each stimulus intensity (plotted on a horizontal axis); usually a S-shaped graph. h Absolute Threshold- the stimulus level at which a sensory signal is detected half the time. h Sensory adaptation- the diminishing responsiveness of sensory systems to prolonged stimulus input; i.e. – getting used to a bad smell
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Response Bias- the systematic tendency for an observer to favor responding in a particular way because of factors unrelated to the sensory features of the stimulus. – I.e. paying someone for the right answers.
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psych. chap 4 - Dhvani Patel Psychology 103 Chapter 4...

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