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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 7 Memory Memory – the mental capacity to encode, store, and retrieve information o Types of Memories Important function of memory is to allow you to have conscious access to the personal and collective past Another function is it enables you to have effortless continuity of experience from one day to the next o Implicit and Explicit Memory Explicit causes of memory: conscious effort to encode or recover information through memory processes Implicit uses of memory: availability of information through memory processes without conscious effort to encode or recover information o Declarative and procedural memory Declarative memory: memory for information such as facts and events Procedural memory: memory for how things get done; the way perceptual, cognitive, and motor skills are acquired, retained, and used. Knowledge compilation: you are able to carry out longer sequences of the activity without conscious intervention • Hard to share procedural knowledge with others o An overview of memory processes To use knowledge at later time requires the operation of three mental processes: • Encoding: the process by which a mental representation is formed in memory • Storage: the retention of encoded material over time • Retrieval: the recovery of stored information from memory Encoding • Requires formation of mental representations of information from the external world o Mental representations preserve important features of past experiences in a way that enables you to re-present those experiences to yourself. Storage • Requires both short and long term changes in the structures of your brain Retrieval • Challenge facing psychologists who want to know how memory works and how it can be improved. Memory Use for the Short Term o Iconic Memory Iconic memory: memory system in the visual domain that allows large amounts of information to be stored for very brief durations • Visual memory, icon, lasts about ½ a second “photographic memory” is eidetic imagery • No satisfactory theory for why eidetic imagery fades over time o Short-Term Memory Short-term memory (STM): memory processes associated with preservation of recent experiences and with retrieval of information from long-term memory; short-term memory is of limited capacity and stores information for only a short length of time without rehearsal • Built in mechanism for focusing cognitive resources o The Capacity Limitations of STM Limits on your ability to keep more than a small sample of information active in STM Can recall somewhere between 5-9 items George Miller • 7 was the “magic number” Capacity of STM depends on memory span....
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.
- Spring '08