chapters 6-10 - Psychology (notes form exam 2) Lea rning...

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Psychology (notes form exam 2) Learning and Behavior Analysis Learning – a process that starts in a relatively consistent change in behavior or behavior potential and is based on experience. Learning-performance distinction – the difference in what has been learned and what is expressed, or performed, in overt behavior. Four critical parts of definition of learning o A change in behavior or behavior potential o A relatively consistent change o A process based on experience o Habituation – showing a decrease in a response when a stimulus is presented repeatedly. Behaviorists believe that much behavior can be explained by simple learning processes. They also believe that many of the same principles of learning apply to all organisms. Classical Conditioning – basic form of learning in which one stimulus or event predicts the occurrence of another stimulus or event. This type of learning explains many emotional responses and drug tolerance. This occurs when a contingent and informative relationship must exist between CS and UCS. Pavlov’s surprising observation o Implanted tubes into dogs’ glands to measure salivation. o He then put meat powder in the dogs’ mouth. o Dogs salivated even before food in their mouth, only needed the sight of it. o He then rang a bell every time he feed the dogs. o Later the dogs salivated by just hearing the bell and no food.
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o Reflex – a response that is naturally triggered (elicited) by specific stimuli that are biologically relevant for the organism. o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS) – naturally elicits a reflexive behavior ex: meat powder o Unconditioned response (UCR) – the behavior elicited by the UCS ex: salivation o Conditioned stimulus (CS) – the neutral stimulus which is paired with UCS ex: bell. o Conditioned response (CR) – any response triggered by the CS as a product of learning ex: salvation when the bell rings. Processes of conditioning o Acquisition – the process by which the CR is first elicited and gradually increases in frequency overtime. o Timing is critical in classical conditioning o Extinction – weakening of a conditioned association in the absence of a reinforcer or unconditioned stimulus o Spontaneous recovery – the reappearance of an extinguished conditioned response after a rest period. o Stimulus generalization – the automatic extension of conditioned responding to similar stimuli that have never been paired with the unconditioned stimulus. o Stimulus discrimination – the process by which an organism learns to respond differently to stimuli that are distinct from the CS on some dimension. Operant Conditioning – learning on which the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences. Thorndike demonstrated that behaviors that bring about satisfying
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course PSY 103 taught by Professor Canli during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Stony Brook.

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chapters 6-10 - Psychology (notes form exam 2) Lea rning...

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