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CVEN 444 Lecture Notes - 03

CVEN 444 Lecture Notes - 03 - cvsu 4-44 ngn'uez 5 i 22-139...

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Unformatted text preview: cvsu 4-44- ngn'uez # 5 i 22-139 100 sheets @flpAfi‘ l s CZETE Aldo TEE CONCRETE — Mux-rurzz o; macaw]: CEMENT (one ore-use Hvouuuc camem), F‘lNE Mam-re (saw), coAEsz Asa-2.56415 J MD wA-rsla. (MAY INCLUDE Acornvzs.) canoes-re: MM 0551:») Peppoye‘nous ‘T'H-E CEMENT) sauna, AND Canasta AQQEECab-‘L'E. As A vac-nap : CEMENT : $4M: : GOA-2&5 A66. .1. z (1.5- 3.0) : (2.5 —4.03 5y w'r. chrea Gwen-raw GIVEU N TELZMS oF‘ THE CEMENT 45 THE WATEz/CEMEUT ZA‘Tlo Cw/c.) 5y [mam-4T: 'w/c = W' WT. OF CLEMENT WATER. Ls Reagan-:0 To PZECIPITATE. THE CHEthL BEACIHOU WITH THE CEMELJT. WATER. AL$O warts Tt-u: 44425651! 4ND Lueztamss THE Mncruee Fa?- WOZKAelL-ITY. THE w/c, :5 THE PrznucxPAL. PAPAMETEQ w eovaalume 1145'. smegma-r14 on: THE Mix. A2: w/c. 4‘) s-rzzumuJ' As w/c‘f, wozzoeuu-rv '1‘ .-/’ 100 sheets C“: 0': V. . Ck! (\l 'TlZADE OFF emf-36d smsuéTr-i Auo MOEMBILITY. w: OP‘I'IMAL. W/C. =02 :pTZEerTH M4255 THE canoes-re: Mix UNNOZKAbt—L‘ Wi'THQJ’r' THE ADDITLOAJ 0F AUDI-fives, 5U¢Hr4¢§ .suparz PLA‘leZEZS. NOTE THAT if: Pozzouumc. 0:2 GHEMICAL. ADMIXTUEES A25 0550 IN THE MI)‘, REPLACNC, :OME 0F THE CEMEL”; A WATER. To cEMEpTiTIoos Bomb mum be: USED -' AN. P= POZZ-OLAIULC. MTEQlA-L c.+ P Ale EWMIMMEUT’ — mmpuo'riou or: 5:qu Aizaueauas - - INGIZ-EAélES WOBKABLLITV - DE LZEA$E6 DEMSi'N - moral-50.555 Duwluw - EEwc-Es BLEEDING MDSEGBECDA-TIOU -— lac—:ouczs THE: manage snub chTEUT AIE. EmZAlkJMEU'T in am oF’ 5-697, 0F 'TUTAI... Mtx Ream/Es THE WE. 6125516114» Table 7-3. Typical Relationshi Between Water- Cement Ratio and ompressive Strength of Concrete . Water-cement ratio by weight Non-air-entrained Air-entrained concrete concrete Compressive strength at 28 days, psi‘ 6000 'Values are estimated average strengths for concrete containing not more than the percentage of air shown in Table 7-6. For a constant water- cement ratio. the strength of concrete ls reduced as the air content Is in- creased. Strength ls based on 6x12—in. cylinders moist-cured 28 days at 73.4’F 1- 3°F in accordance with Section 9b of ASTM C 31. Relationship assumes maximum size of aggregate about 3/4 In. to 1 In. Adapted from Reference 7-6. ‘l \\u;q. 22-139 100 sheets (gt/@5141?” AA/ Compressive strength. psi 6000 5000 4000 3000 Air -entroined concrete 2000 ””003 0.4 0.5. 0.6 0.7 0.8 Water-cement ratio Fig. 7-1. Typical trial mixture or field data strength curves. - Table 7-4. Maximum Permissible Water-Cement Ratios for Concrete When Strength Data from Field Experience or Trial Mixtures Are Not Available Specified Water-cement ratio by weight 28-day compressive strength, Non-air-entrained Air-entrained fc’, psi concrete concrete With most materials. water-cement ratios shown will provide average strengths greater than required. This table should be used only with special permission from the project engineer. It is not intended for use in designing trial batches. Use Table 7-3 for trial batch design. “For strength above 4500 psi (non-air-entrained concrete) and 4000 psi (air- entralned concrete). concrete proportions shall be established from field data or trlal mixtures. ‘I 224 39 100 sheets @fizmen" l i WOMILITY is MEASURED By Tm: sum? Tes'r. “THE LARGER THE til—UMP) THE [4025 VJOEZABlLlTY TH’E CONCRETE ’5, Table 7-7. Recommended Slumps for Various Types of Construction Slump, in. concrete construction Reinforced foundation walls and footings Plain footings, caissons, and substructure walls Beams and reinforced walls Building columns Pavements and slabs Mass concrete 'May be increased 1 in. for consolidation by hand methods such as rodding v and spading. ADDITNES cm.) 13E. 0:50 To ans-mug moPEIZ—‘leb 0F COMUZETE , suPEIZPLAleZEZ -' CHEMICALLY BELEAbEs mess warez, mom we FINE. (mama-re (We) To ruczeAéE Womiuw. A12. EUTEAIUME'JT - HELPS wrm FREEZE/MU wuss, mo womeiLIry. magmas Mix YIELD YIELD “= W )— A127, 10.0 sheei’s A L (V :17 255 gr: cowczEIE - usmc, DiFFEZEkJT Types OF POZTLAMD ezMEu‘r ‘TVPE -I — NOZMAI. POZ'T'LAHD CLEMENT F012 swam pup—poses C NWT CONLEETED WM? 41' - Momma: Poe-rung caAEIJr FOE eggpure: 2961512515, (.1550 N HGT wetxmrze. In Lucha smuczuzes. TVPEvCEl' - ’Hlth-l EARLY 5112506114. CEMEJT‘ Comm A FLAEZ. PowDEZ, [100256.55 SQBF'ALE. AJEEA‘ m HVUZO'TIOUI "NPE-m - Low HEAT Duewb HVDIZA-noo F02 LABQE 3720630265 WPE :9? -' SULFATE EEévsTA-N-T‘ CEIMENJT ITIOU 'TEZJ L— MAIT'ERILLé 40250 To THE comma“; Mn< mgr 2591.45.05 some: or was: ¢EMEMT, Paazom —— wnsu MW-E’o wrrH $545013, Act's Luce 63M”. Do M013 av THEMezI—uas, HAVE WWI-F1005 mpzernas. —’ FLY ASL—J — BLAST WE sure WAsTa Pwoocrs pzou 0mm woos-Haze] ~ 5”..ch Puma \\a|/ WHAT are Supplementary Cementitious Materials? In its most basic form, concrete is a mixture of portland cement, sand, coarse aggregate and water. The principal cementitious material in concrete is portland cement. To- day, most concrete mixtures contain supplementary cementitious materials that make up a portion of the cementitious component in concrete. These materials are generally byproducts from other processes or natural ma- terials. They may or may not be further processed for use in concrete. Some of these materials are called pozzolans, which by themselves do not have any cementitious proper- ties, but when used with portland cement, react to form cementitious compounds. Other materials, such as slag, do exhibit cementitious properties. For use in concrete, supplementary cementitious materi- als, sometimes referred to as mineral admixtures, need to meet requirements of established standards. They may be used individually or in combination in concrete. They may be added to the concrete mixture as a blended cement or as a separately batched ingredient at the ready mixed con- crete plant. Some examples of these materials are listed below. Fly Ash is a byproduct of coal-fired furnaces at power generation facilities and is the non-combustible particu- lates removed from the flue gases. Fly ash used in con- crete should conform to the standard specification, ASTM C 618. The amount of fly ash in concrete can vary from 5% to 65% by mass of the cementitious materials, depend- ing on the source and composition of the fly ash and the performance requirements of the concrete. Characteristics of fly ash can vary significantly depending on the source of the coal being burnt. Class F fly ash is normally pro- duced by burning anthracite or bituminous coal and gen- erally has a low calcium content. Class C fly ash is pro- duced when subbituminous coal is burned and typically has cementitious and pozzolanic properties. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag (GGBFS) is a non-metallic manufactured byproduct from a blast fiirnace when iron ore is reduced to pig iron. The liquid slag is rapidly cooled to form granules, which are then ground to a fineness similar to portland cement. Ground granulated blast furnace slag used as a cementitious material should conform to the standard specification, ASTM C 989. Three grades - 80, 100, and 120 are defined in C 989, with the higher grade contributing more to strength potential. GGBFS has cementitious properties by itself but these are enhanced when it is used with portland cement. Slag is used at 20% to 70% by mass of the cementitious materials. Silica Fume is a highly reactive pozzolanic material and is a byproduct from the manufacture of silicon or ferro-silicon metal. It is collected fiom the flue gases from electric arc fin- naces. Silica fume is an extremely fine powder, with particles about 100 times smaller than an average cement grain. Silica fiime is available as a densified powder or in a water-slurry form. The standard specification for silica fume is ASTM C 1240. It is generally used at 5 to 12% by mass of cementitious materials for concrete structures that need high strength or significantly reduced permeability to water. Due to its extreme fineness special procedures are warranted when handling, plac- ing and curing silica fume concrete. Natural Pozzolans. Various naturally occurring materials possess, or can be processed to possess pozzolanic proper- ties. These materials are also covered under the standard specification, ASTM C 618. Natural pozzolans are gener- ally derived from volcanic origins as these siliceous mate- rials tend to be reactive if they are cooled rapidly. In the US, commercially available natural pozzolans include, metakaolin and calcined shale or clay. These materials are manufactured by controlled calcining (firing) of natu- rally occurring minerals. Metakaolin is produced from rela— tively pure kaolinite clay and it is used at 5% to 15% by mass of the cementitious materials. Calcined shale or clay is used at higher percentages by mass. Other natural poz— zolans include volcanic glass, zeolitic trass or tuffs, rice husk ash and diatomaceous earth. WHY are Supplementary Cementitious Materials Used? Supplementary cementitious materials can be used for im- proved concrete performance in its fresh and hardened state. They are primarily used for improved workability, durability and strength. These materials allow the concrete producer to design and modify the concrete miXture to suit the desired application. Concrete mixtures with high portland cement con- tents are susceptible to cracking and increased heat genera- tion. These efi‘ects can be controlled to a certain degree by using supplementary cementitious materials. Supplementary cementi ~(is mtrra My as [slag and silica fume enable dustry to use hun- dreds of millions of top ‘ otherwise be landfil 5 reduces the consum, 1 s ume of concrete. P_ rtla surnption and emgsisio which is conserfd or concrete is redu ed. HOW do These Materials Affect Concrete Properties? Fresh Concrete: In general, supplementary cementitious materials improve the consistency and workability of fresh concrete because an additional volume of fines is added to the mixture. Concrete with silica fume is typically used at low water contents with high range water reducing admixtures and these mixtures tend to be cohesive and stickier than plain con? crete. Fly ash and slag generally reduce the water demand for required concrete slump. Concrete setting time may be re- tarded with some supplementary cementitious materials used at higher percentages. This can be beneficial in hot weather. The retardation is offset in winter by reducing the percentage of supplementary cementitious material in the concrete. Be- cause of the additional fines, the amount and rate of bleeding of these concretes is often reduced. This is especially signifi- cant when silica fume is used. Reduced bleeding, in conjunc- tion with retarded setting, can cause plastic shrinkage crack- ing and may warrant special precautions during placing and finishing. (See CIP 5) Strength - Concrete mixtures can be proportioned to pro- duce the required strength and rate of strength gain as re- quired for the application. With supplementary cementitious Technical information prepared by National Ready Mixed Concrete ASsociation MUM READYMM (mam: 4550mm Printed in USA. 900 Spring Street Silver Spring, Maryland 20910 Copyright NATIONAL READY MIXED CONCRETE ASSOCIATION. 2000 materials other than silica fume, the rate of strength gain might be lower initially, but strength gain continues for a longer period compared to mixtures with only portland ce- ment, frequently resulting in higher ultimate strengths. Silica fume is often used to produce concrete compressive strengths in excess of 10,000 psi [70 MPa]. Concrete con- taining supplementary cementitious material generally needs additional consideration for curing of both the test specimens and the structure to ensure that the potential prop- erties are attained. Durability - Supplementary cementitious materials can be used to reduce the heat generation associated with cement hydration and reduce the potential for thermal cracking in massive structural elements. These materials modify the Irri- crostructure of concrete and reduce its permeability thereby reducing the penetration of water and water-borne salts into concrete. Watertight concrete will reduce various forms of con- crete deterioration, such as corrosion of reinforcing steel and chemical attack. Most supplementary cementitious materials can reduce internal expansion of concrete due to chemical re- ts and the type of supple- . The ready mixed concrete 11y available materi- , ions for the required tions can inhibit optimization and economy. While several enhancements to concrete properties are discussed above, these are not mutually exclusive and the mixture should be proportioned for the most critical performance requirements for the job with the available materials. References 1. ASTM Standards C 618, C 989, C 1240, Volume 04.02, Ameri- can Society of Testing and Materials, West Conshohocken, PA. 2. Use of Natural Pozzolans in Concrete, ACI 232.1R, Ameri- can Concrete Institute, Farrnington Hills, MI. 3. Use of Fly Ash in Concrete, ACI 232.2R, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. 4. Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag as a Cementitious Constituent in Concrete, ACI 233R, American Concrete In- stitute, Farmington Hills, MI. 5. Guide for the Use of Silica Fume in Concrete, ACI 234R, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI. 6. Pozzolanic and Cementitious Materials, V.M. Malholra and P. Kumar Mehta, Gordon and Breach Publishers © National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, including photocopying or other electronic means, without permission in writing from the National Ready Mixed Concrete Association. c115 30/0060/15.0/DMSC \WJ' 22-139 100 sheets @flMp/m‘ We a) w - wpucauw new l-é. EFFtc—IEJ wochBu—t‘rv UMI‘I‘ZMN.) 25 z" Cw/VtapzarrozD 3‘ 4-" (w/o Vtm‘kfi) b) WW vszunzo 8y TESTING; cvuwpsz 5PE¢aM5~$ AT 2:: 94,75: I 7!; = SPELIF’IED (914:2.er compzassuva smsueTH (or—“Tao EGGK-WLA-TED OUT CF 11.4: 1355mm) zooo - coco pat; - Noam».— €11st conic. =‘ 9060 -z.f,oooPsL — v-HoH srzryocaru come. I Paocapurza FOE vszmvwe 75¢: I. MAKE CYLINDERS Dwzwe 'THE P002. 2. Stem: w WET ZOOM C 2 90?. HUMIDIW) 3_ TEbT- e, 2.6 DAV/5 05mg 4» 45152495 VALUE FROM MUL‘UPLE TEST5. cow cars-r5 wMPizEs-‘EML Stigma-(1.4 Is A Faun-now 0F— TIME H TYPE I 3 DA‘/ 30M 70M IA 019/ ) r 0.3572) 0.66 c 0.75/‘ 085/; 05/; o. ,: 0.3%" 0.40/2, Compressive strength. psi 7000 Fog cured at 70 °F for gas shown I-‘g-in. mox. size aggregate- 6 bags of cement per cu yd Days Years Fig. 2-10. Rates of compressive strength development for concrete made with various types of cement. Reference 2-20. \. 22—139 me} sheeis am > WWW & 3 (“74’ {4 a x, AXtAI. area's gnaw BEHAVIOIZ {I ; C .: 0.2955 cucz/ ' ® awn-my. AT Pam/+25 ‘ 0.5}; 1 > i § % Tsuolop C RAGE A'T FAILURE 1 { l { f w ‘ ‘ < \ W" I) WEAK m music»! 2.) 6000 w COMF’B-Eéblou , BUT var—v LIMITED menu-w i 22-139 100 sheets @flPAfl' // c.) W - USUALLY 7 - 102 0F 76: W W-W DETEzMiUEDWW Whizan'EEl—ITW'fésTSW W WW M..— ‘5 m DOCaBOHE span/me» Ea— WALL? 7:43 4D A oth-‘Icucr To MOLD AND TEST d) I " "TVPKALDI Ib- 2.52, {c [1.) 55mm “71" - 2/17: (Saws) 6,, on: V¢= z/Z burl D14 - DIFFlcut—‘T To 545°3qu EXPEBIMEMT‘ALLV i l . ‘ 9...,» 7 a.) W (SPECIFIC waeHT) - NOIZMM. coNazETL—t = 145,90! - NOBMAL IZEJNRDBCEO Cone, = 150 pp? - Llol-W'NEIGHT cost» = ’20 POL f) L (szanrr MODOLU$> Ea -_- 3'3 “"5 1%, 'N’ = specific. WTCPUF) = 573000./7c"' F02 mozmz. WT oonm E’c 2: (5-4Dxtobpsc (5;? £1) 8-10 1| 22-139 109 sheets A; @fi’fimm 13” g) 5H21MKAGE (TEMPw-ruee: appears 3 - VOLUME CHAMbE DURING 6ND AF'TEZ. cognac. 65h = __f__.gsklfi (fi/NDAY6> IO Hf WHEEE a a ado/use -— 8oox/o'“sf. 0&5)? - DEFGZMA'HON CST'rzandfi) UNDER. susTAmso LOAD 0.6 g“ = gel anaasy. t 10+ (304 pair: 139 1GB :52? 22- 0 WW / Beaumao ANEEAGE COMPREéSNE Wow .— {a 756/! = f; 4— 1.2245 —- 7‘; 4- 2.355—5’00 CAcl €6.54) (Am 5415-2) WHERE. 15,: = 25 DAY 6thaao‘m FOIZ DESION S = smuoyzo DEVIL‘noM a: ISTZEMé‘l’H AT A. Poa‘rtcppuz Borrmwcp PLANT J) compassswE S'rIaEés—srmu DlAeeAM C UMCOUFIHED cvuwez) up , 17°44an s-n ($0565 I 0 I06? 0 (”3 k) «mango o/uuozaze y CDNFIHEO m 0:4qu {MED 22-139 100 sheets @fl’mn W s'rBEss- STRAIN) BEHAVIOR , NEGKJUC’ ‘K 5'qu V\ ELD W Polk.” _I E5 = 21,000,000 P50 120 Id :1 ' We e WIre Grade 75 80 Grade 60 Stress (ksi) 40. 0 0.01 0.02 ‘ 0.03 0.04 0.05 Strain (in.lin.) ‘ i i i i i ; Mo i i . x , _ 3 ' am: 90 (f, - @090 pa“ ) is WPICAL 3 ‘i i i I I - Main ribs “ First mark is initial if of producing mill 1 ; Second mark is bar size 1 Third mark is type of steel: 3 A615 ' I R Rail, A996 : W Low alloy, A706 i I Grade marking for Grade 60 i i ‘ (a) Grade 40 or 50 (b.) Grade 60 r \ i z E ' i 1 i i i i i‘ i i i i Z ‘ 'i i i ‘ i i i i E i : i i i i i 1 i i i i i i i I i i 17' APPENDIX B — ASTIVI STANDARD INCH-POUND REINFORCING BARS UwCClO CC r 6N. v-00 .: QQ%H\ 0.625 1.043 1.502 2.044 2.670 0.750 0.875 1.000 1.128 1 1 0.79 3.400 4 1.00 270 410 303 313 4-00 .27 1 1 2.25 5 56 11 # ...
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