300-09%20Archaea%20FINAL.ppt

300-09%20Archaea%20FINAL.ppt - B IS C 3 0 0 L M o n ., M a...

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ARCHAEA 3/9/09 1 1 BISC300L Mon., Mar. 9, 2009 Archaea Chap. 18 FINAL VERSION. Print time 3/10/09 4:05 AM version. ARCHAEA 3/9/09 2 2 Some definitions : ( noun, capitalized and italic ) name of the taxonomic domain. archaeon: ( n., sing .) a member of the domain Archaea. archaea: ( n., pl .) members of the domain archaeal: ( adj .) relating to archaea. Archaea are no longer called archaebacteria, because that term was confusing. However, some archaea still have “ -bacterium ” in their genus name. ARCHAEA 3/9/09 3 3 Fig. 1.6 The Tree of Life Note that the domain Archaea is shown between Bacteria and Eukarya . ARCHAEA 3/9/09 4 4 Box 17.4, p. 505: Carl Woese The domain Archaea wasn’t defined and accepted until rRNA gene sequencing was done. Recall that DNA sequencing wasn’t invented until the mid 1970s. Archaeal species were known for decades before, but recognition that archaea comprise a third domain did not come until much later.
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ARCHAEA 3/9/09 5 5 Property Bacteria Archaea Eukarya Nuclear membrane No No Yes Plastids No No Yes Peptidoglycan Yes* No No Phospholipid link Ester Ether Ester Ribosome size 70S 70S 80S Table 1.2 Compare Bacteria , Archaea & Eukarya (brief version) * Some bacteria, such as mycoplasmas, don’t make peptidoglycan. You should already know this table. ARCHAEA 3/9/09 6 6 Table 18.1 (part 1) Compare archaea, As it appears in the book. ARCHAEA 3/9/09 7 7 Table 18.1 (part 2) Compare archaea, As it appears in the book. ARCHAEA 3/9/09 8 8 Table 18.1 Transcription and translation 80S* 70S 70S Ribosome size Complex Simple Complex RNA polymerase Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Property Yes No Yes Diphthamide** in elongation factor Sensitive Insensitive Insensitive Cyclohexamide Insensitive Sensitive Insensitive Chloramphenicol *This doesn’t refer to ribosomes of mitochondria or chloroplasts. **Diphthamide is a derivative of histidine that is present in the translation factor EF2. The killing of eukaryotic cells by diphtheria toxin is due to modification of this diphthamide residue (see later lecture). RNA polymerase of archaea resembles RNA polymerase II of eukaryotes.
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ARCHAEA 3/9/09 9 9 Table 18.1 (continued) Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Property Frequent Infrequent Infrequent Cellular differentiation Unicellular or multicellular Unicellular Unicellular Uni/multicellular Yes No Yes Histones More than one; large; linear* One; small; circular One; small; circular Chromosomes >5 μ m 1-4 μ m 1-4 μ m Typical size *This doesn’t refer to DNA of mitochondria or chloroplasts. ARCHAEA 3/9/09 10 10 Table 18.1 (continued) Complex flagella*, cilia, legs, fins, wings Simple flagella, gliding, twitching Simple flagella Locomotion Common in organelles Generally absent; high in protein Generally absent Intracytoplasmic membranes Eukarya Bacteria Archaea Property Usually mitochondrial membranes Cytoplasmic membrane Cytoplasmic membrane Site of energy metabolism
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course BISC 300 at USC.

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300-09%20Archaea%20FINAL.ppt - B IS C 3 0 0 L M o n ., M a...

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