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Unformatted text preview: Research Ethics Research Ethics There are broadly two types of research ethics relevant to social science research: 1) ethical treatment of human subjects 2) reporting your results accurately Stanford Prison Experiment Stanford Prison Experiment 1971 Philip Zimbardo Determine the effects of different roles on behavior Students selected to be “guards” or “prisoners” in mock prison in psychology department basement “prisoners” arrested at home Guards provided with mirrored sunglasses, wooden batons, etc Instructions to guards: "You can create in the prisoners feelings of boredom, a sense of fear to some degree, you can create a notion of arbitrariness that their life is totally controlled by us, by the system, you, me, and they'll have no privacy… We're going to take away their individuality in various ways. In general what all this leads to is a sense of powerlessness. That is, in this situation we'll have all the power and they'll have none." http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x2ya1j_stan Guards exhibited sadistic tendencies Prisoners suffered emotional trauma 2 had to be removed from the experiment early Experiment terminated after 6 days Ethical treatment of human Ethical treatment of human subjects When doing a survey or an experiment involving human subjects, you should submit your research to the Human Subjects board at your institution Ethical treatment of human Ethical treatment of human subjects Deception Informed Consent Confidentiality Deception Deception http://www.livevideo.com/video/Koyaanisqatsi/ Deception Deception Why is deception used? Deception Deception Deception must be justified by the experiment Deception should not produce physical pain or severe emotional stress Researchers should explain any deception used as early as possible (from APA guidelines) Deception Deception Was deception ok in Milgram’s experiment? Deception Deception Milgram’s followup survey of subjects 83.7% said they were “glad” or “very glad” that they participated 1.3% said they were “sorry” or “very sorry” that they participated Informed Consent Informed Consent
– Researchers should explain the purpose of the research and its duration and procedures used – Explain right to decline to participate or withdraw – Explain negative factors, risks including limits to confidentiality – Benefits of research, incentives to participate, whom to contact with questions Confidentiality Confidentiality
– If sharing data, find a way to code respondents, but do not include information that could conceivably allow individuals to identify individual respondents – Survey firms are strict about this e.g. NES and birthdays Costs and Benefits Costs and Benefits The typical rule of thumb for Human subjects boards is that the benefits of research should outweigh the risks or costs Not all researchers agree on these quantities, and some human subjects boards are stricter than others Accurate reporting of results Accurate reporting of results
– We have discussed many potential pitfalls for data collection Personal biasin coding, experimenter effects Doubleblind coding Accurate Reporting of Results Accurate Reporting of Results Alert the reader to any potential shortcomings with the research – Note which confounding variables could affect the dependent variable in an observational study – Note to which populations the results can be generalized – You can discussthese with ideas for future research to address these problems in the Discussion section Questions? ...
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- Fall '09