GenesMakeProteins_FALL_2010

GenesMakeProteins_FALL_2010 - October 5 2010 Genes Make...

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October 5, 2010 “Genes Make Proteins”
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DNA cartoon:
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Proteins are central to life! -- The shape of a protein determines what it can do. -- Shape is determined by the sequence (order) of the amino acids in a protein. But, how do cells assemble proteins with the right amino acids in the proper order ? Genes are responsible. Where are genes found? On __________ -- in the nucleus of most cells. What about in prokaryotes? -- in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, a gene is one section of a chromosome . * Genes vary in length depending on the protein needed! Genes Make Proteins
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Chromosomes are strands of DNA wound around some proteins. The protein/DNA mix is called “ chromatin .” DNA is a double helix molecule made up of nucleotides with their base pairs joined by hydrogen bonding. Nucleotide is made up of a 1) sugar 2) PO 4 3) base . Base Pair Base pairs only join in certain combinations: A denine- T hymine G uanine- C ytosine Chromosomes of humans have about 3.2 billion base pairs. (2/13/01 news releases) How many chromosomes do humans have?
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So, chromosomes in eukaryotes are in pairs -- one set from each parent. For a species to survive, it must reproduce. In nature, the urge to reproduce is second only to urge to live!! We want to pass on our genes. (Do male animals have estrus cycles?) (Does this help explain certain sexual behaviors in animals?)
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Hint: This weekend, it faces further extinction pressure from Homo spartanicus !” “Another animal nears extinction!” The power and ferocity are of this animal are highly over- rated. It’s rarely seen in Michigan. But, it can be found, and especially heard , in many parts of the state. Regardless of what its supporters think, it’s just a member of the weasel family. (A picture of the only good wolverines.)
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Cells divide and duplicate their chromosomes by mitosis . Mitosis – duplication of nucleus, giving two identical sets of chromosomes.
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Meiosis – what is it? Division of sex cells, giving four haploid (half) gametes
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Meiosis – division of sex cells, giving four gametes . What do we call the male gametes produced by plants? ( Hint: They cause allergies in many people!) So, why aren’t half of our gametes exactly like the chromosomes of our mother? And the other half exactly like the chromosomes of our father? Answer?
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course ISB 202 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '08 term at Michigan State University.

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GenesMakeProteins_FALL_2010 - October 5 2010 Genes Make...

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