Chapter%208

Chapter%208 - 50 m Orgqanisms are highly ordered...

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Unformatted text preview: 50 m Orgqanisms are highly ordered arrangements of matter, and it takes a lot of energy to maintain this order. Climbing up converts the kinetic energy of muscle movement to potential energy. A diver has less potential energy in the water than on the platform. Diving converts potential energy to kinetic energy. A diver has more potential energy on the platform than in the water. Two types of energy important in biological systems are potential energy and kinetic energy. (a) First law of thermodynamics (b) Second law of thermodynamics Chemical energy Heat CO 2 H 2 O + Thermodynamics is the science of energy transformations. The 1st Law of Thermodynamics says that energy is never created or destroyed. The 2 nd Law of Thermodynamics says that every transformation of energy is accompanied by an increase in the entropy of the universe. Energy (a) Exergonic reaction: energy released Progress of the reaction Free energy Products Amount of energy released ( G < 0) Reactants If a the products of a reaction have less potential energy in their chemical bonds than the reactants do, then the reaction releases energy and is exergonic. The G for the reaction is negative, and the reaction will proceed spontaneously without any energy input. Energy (b) Endergonic reaction: energy required Progress of the reaction Free energy Products Amount of energy required ( G > 0) Reactants If a the products of a reaction have more potential energy in their chemical bonds than the reactants do, then the reaction requires energy and is enderergonic. The G for the reaction is positive, and the reaction will not proceed without an energy input. (a) An isolated hydroelectric system G < 0 G = 0 (a) Gravitational motion...
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This note was uploaded on 01/27/2011 for the course BIOL 112 taught by Professor Vaughn during the Fall '08 term at Texas A&M.

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Chapter%208 - 50 m Orgqanisms are highly ordered...

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