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Chapter%2011_part2

Chapter%2011_part2 - Second exam Thursday Oct 22 Covers...

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Second exam Thursday, Oct. 22 Covers Chapters 8, 9, 10, 11.
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EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Plasma membrane CYTOPLASM Receptor Signaling molecule Relay molecules in a signal transduction pathway Activation of cellular response Reception Transduction Response 1 2 3 No matter what specific mechanisms are involved, cellular signaling involves three phases.
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Hormone (testosterone) EXTRACELLULAR FLUID Receptor protein Plasma membrane Hormone- receptor complex DNA mRNA NUCLEUS New protein CYTOPLASM Hydrophobic hormones diffuse across the plasma membrane and bind to a receptor. This binding causes a change in conformation that now exposes a nuclear targeting signal. The receptor/hormone complex is transported into the nucleus, where the protein binds DNA and activates specific hormone responsive genes.
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Activated relay proteins Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr P P P P P P Cellular response 1 Cellular response 2 Inactive relay proteins Activated tyrosine kinase regions Fully activated receptor tyrosine kinase 6 6 ADP ATP Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr P P P P P P 3 4 Signaling molecule (ligand) Ligand-binding site α Helix Tyrosines Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Receptor tyrosine kinase proteins CYTOPLASM Signaling molecule Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Tyr Dimer 1 2 Tyrosine Kinases are the other major class of cell surface receptors.
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G protein-coupled receptor Plasma membrane Enzyme G protein (inactive) GDP CYTOPLASM Activated enzyme GTP Cellular response GDP P i Activated receptor GDP GTP Signaling molecule Inactive enzyme 1 2 3 4 Many extracellualrsignals are transmitted through a pathway that involves Guanosine Triphosphate (GTP)
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