CHAPTER%2021 - Today is the last chance to evaluate this...

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Today is the last chance to evaluate this course (and all other ones, too). Please go to pica.tamu.edu to review this course. Chapter 21 – We will cover only sections 21.3, 21.4, and 21.5
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Chapter 21. Genomes and their evolution
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Prokaryotic genomes contain a few million base pairs and a few thousand genes. Rough average is one gene per 1,000 bp.
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Eukaryotic genomes are larger than prokaryotic genomes, but there is no correlation between genome size and organism complexity.
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Exons (regions of genes coding for protein or giving rise to rRNA or tRNA) (1.5%) Repetitive DNA that includes transposable elements and related sequences (44%) Introns and regulatory sequences (24%) Unique noncoding DNA (15%) Repetitive DNA unrelated to transposable elements (15%) L1 sequences (17%) Alu elements (10%) Simple sequence DNA (3%) Large-segment duplications (5–6%) Only a very small fraction of most mammalian genomes encode proteins or functional RNAs, like tRNA and rRNA. Most of the rest is composed of highly repeated elements, informally known as ‘junk’ DNA.
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Barbara McClintock finally confirmed the chromosomal theory of inheritance and discovered transposable elements working in maize in the 1930’s.
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