BioLect4 - 1 Lecture 4: The Evolution of Populations Odds...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 Lecture 4: The Evolution of Populations Odds & Ends Today and Friday CH 23 New folder (purple bat) on e-learning has reading assignment & HW practice problems A task for you to think about in the next couple of weeks- you will be asked to submit one doubt, "weakness", what doesn't make sense about evolution-I will collate and talk about the most common & randomly pick some others Announcement Starting Monday, February 1st Mr. Chris Lee will hold weekly reviewsfor Biology 112 students who wish to discuss the previous week's lab. These sessions will take place each Monday, in Heldenfels 105 from 4:00- 5:00 p.m. Students will be seated on a first come - first served basis until the room capacity of 103 is reached. New uploaded file on e-learning: Tutoring Support Atlas (bigger than a road map) We are going from micro to macroevolution 1) CH23 = Evolution of Populations = microevolution within species 2) CH24 = Origin of species=Speciation 3) CH25 = History of Life = Macroevolution Microevolution Macroevolution 2 Road Map Sources of genetic variation in a population mutation sexual reproduction Genotype to phenotype genotype phenotype phenotype genotype Basic probabilty and population genetics Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium Sources of Genetic Variation - Mutation mutation- change in nucleotide sequence of DNA (RNA of viruses) silent mutations- do not change phenotype-non-coding portion of DNA (p 433-435)-amino acid sequence unchanged (Fig. 17.5)-aa sequence change doesn't change protein function Can natural selection act on silent mutations? Sources of Genetic Variation - Mutation mutation- change in nucleotide sequence of DNA (RNA of viruses) Types of Mutations: 1. point mutations - single change in nucleotide 2. chromosomal rearrangements 3. gene duplication Adaptive Point Mutation: Sickle Cell Anemia Sickle cell anemia confers resistence to malaria normal sickle-cell 3 Chromosomal Rearrangements Romanov et al. BMC Genomics 2009 10(Suppl 2):S10 doi:10.1186/1471-2164- 10-S2-S10 Mutation and Development ("evo devo")-Small Changes Can Have Big Effects Mutation and Development ("evo devo")-Small Changes Can Have Big Effects Hox genes control overall body plan Gene Duplication: A Mechanism For Big Changes (and an expanded genome) Duplications can be co-opted for other uses See page 471 on human olfactory genes! 4 Mutation Rates & Evolution Mutation rates vary! among different speciesbetween the sexes..among individuals..among chromosomes..among genes mutation rates 100,000 genes/ generation evolution more rapid with SHORTER generations Ex-HIV generation time = 2 days and is RNA = higher mutation rate, can rapidly evolve resistance to any single drug. Use "cocktails" Road Map Sources of genetic variation in a population mutation sexual reproduction Genotype to phenotype genotype phenotype phenotype genotype Basic probabilty and population genetics Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium...
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BioLect4 - 1 Lecture 4: The Evolution of Populations Odds...

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