Friday, September 15, 2006 – Friday, September 22, 2006 – Monday, September 25, 2006
century democratization – a selected chronology
1974 – Portugal, Greece
1978 – Spain
1983 - Argentina
1985 - Brazil
1989 - Hungary, Chile
1990 – Germany (East), South Africa
Weimar Republic of Germany (1919-1933)
The Weimar republic is the name of the regime established in Germany after the dissolution of the
monarchy in the aftermath of Germany’s defeat in World War 1.
The constitution of the Weimar republic provided for open elections to Parliament (the national legislature)
for representatives of a wide range of ideologies including old monarchists, conservatives, liberals, socialists and
At the outset the Weimar republic was beset with a number of problems:
hyperinflation, prices could double in days
resentment at the conditions imposed on a defeated Germany – no army, very high war reparations
hatred among political groups directed against the communist and Germany’s Jewish population
in 1933, the national socialist party (NAZI) won a plurality (43%) but not a majority in the parliamentary elections.
Hitler named chancellor or chief executive.
Monday, September 18, 2006
Democracies are frail regimes
Illustrate the process of democratization:
poorest country in western Europe end of 19
had history of authoritarian rule (church)
1960s, there was a tremendous outburst on the African continent of colonial countries wanting
Reason: this case does not fit the Aristotelian/Lipset Proposition about the middle sectors and democracy
Portugal was the first European country to exploit the riches of overseas trade and conquest begun under Henry
the Navigator (1396-1460) during the Age of Exploration.
However, by the 20
century Portugal had become one of the poorest nations in Europe.
retained control, i.e.
it was the effective state in its African possessions in Angola and Mozambique.
In 1932 Antonio Salazar overthrew a weak democracy and converted the Portuguese state into an
In 1970 Salazar died of a stroke and Marcelo Caetano replaced him.
Under the authoritarian rule of Salazar and Caetano Portugal remained a poor and isolated country. It did
not produce adequately to be self sufficient and relied on its overseas possessions to make up for its economic
However, elements in the African possessions began an armed struggle for independence. Portugal
responded by mobilizing a large army to subdue this insurgency.
This was an expensive proposition which Portugal
could ill afford to sustain.
In 1974 the Army hero of the colonial wars, General Antonio Spinola published a book, Portugal and the