Source of energyBatteryelectrochemical cells that store•Battery – electrochemical cells that store energy in a chemical way,–Converting chemical energy into electrical ++energy–Positive electrode (anode) and negative electrode (cathode)P ib tthbl–Primary battery - non-rechargeable –Secondary battery - Re-chargeable•Energy harvesting from the environment--– Solar– Wind– ThermalThermal– mechanical
Quality of a batteryRechargeable or not••Energy density•Size•Runtime and service life•Safety•Maintenance requirement•Recharging cycle (for rechargeable battery)•Charging time (for rechargeable battery)•Voltage and current rating•Load characteristics•Different type of battery have different characteristics on the above qualities
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Types of batteryTypes of battery •Primary battery–Alkaline battery–Zinc-carbon battery•Secondary battery–Lead-acid battery – mostly used in automobile–Dry-cell – mobile usage•Nickel-cadmium (NiCd)•Nickel Metal Hydride (NiMH)•Lithium-ion•Lithium polymer•Fuel cell – produces electricity from fuel and an oxidant, which react in the presence of an electrolyte.–Consume reactant, which my be replenished–Hydrogen fuel cell – hydrogen as fuel and oxygen (air) as oxidant–Other fuels – hydrocarbons and alcohols.