Lecture_35_PPT

# Lecture_35_PPT - Chapter 19-22 Thermodynamics...

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Chapter 19-22 Thermodynamics PhaseTransition

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Phase Changes z A phase change is when a substance changes from one form to another z For example z Superconductor to normal z Solid to liquid (melting) z Liquid to gas (boiling)
9/2 R 9 R 9/2 R

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Phase Changes Q T=0 m z During a phase change, there is no change in temperature of the substance when heat is transferred into it. z The increase in internal energy is represented by the reduced internal potential energy.
Internal Energy z Internal energy does include kinetic energies of atoms or molecules due to: z Translational motion z Rotational motion z Vibrational motion z Internal energy also includes potential energy between molecules, particularly for liquids and solids.

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Internal Energy In liquids and solids there is potential energy associated with the intermolecular attractive forces
Details of Heating Water

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From Water to Steam
Why is the water specific heat more than ten times large than that of copper?

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Graph of Ice to Steam
Graph Part A , Warming Ice z Start with one gram of ice at –30.0ºC z During phase A, the temperature of the ice changes from –30.0ºC to 0ºC z Q = m i c i Δ T z c i = 2090 J/kgºC z Q = 62.7 J

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z Once at 0ºC, the phase change (melting) starts z The temperature stays the same although energy is still being added z This energy breaks down
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Lecture_35_PPT - Chapter 19-22 Thermodynamics...

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