Lecture_38_PPT

Lecture_38_PPT - Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy and the...

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Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy and the Second Law of Thermodynamics
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First Law of Thermodynamics – Review z The first law is a statement of Conservation of Energy z The first law states that a change in internal energy in a system can occur as a result of energy transfer by heat, by work, or by both
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First Law – Missing Pieces z Only certain types of energy-conversion and energy-transfer processes actually take place in nature z The first law makes no distinction between processes that occur spontaneously and those that do not z An example is that If two systems are in thermal contact, net thermal energy transfers spontaneously by heat from the hotter system to the colder system
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Second Law of Thermodynamics z Establishes which processes do and which do not occur z Some processes can occur in either direction according to the first law z Some are observed to occur only in one direction - Irreversible Processes z This directionality is governed by the second law
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Irreversible Processes z An irreversible process is one that occurs naturally in one direction only z Reverse-play of a movie of an irreversible process is recognizable. z Examples: z Melting of ice z Gas expansion (animation) z Car crushing z The tidiness of your room Isolated systems tend toward disorder
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Entropy Order Disorder z Entropy is a natural measure of this disorder, a measure of randomness. z The more disorder a system is, the high entropy it has.
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Lecture_38_PPT - Chapter 22 Heat Engines, Entropy and the...

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