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Unformatted text preview: OIL AND FAT TECHNOLOGY LECTURES I (Classification of Oil-Bearing Materials) (Classification Prof.Dr.Aytaç SAYGIN GÜMÜŞKESEN Prof.Dr.Aytaç Yrd.Doç.Dr.Fahri YEMİŞÇİOĞLU FAYDALI LİNKLER FAYDALI http://www.bysd.org.tr/ http://www.zae.gov.tr/ http://www.eurofedlipid.org/ http://www.aocs.org/ http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/ http://www.kkgm.gov.tr http://www.tagem.gov.tr http://www.rapanelli.it http://www.alfalaval.com http://www.lurgi.com http://www.desmetgroup.com http://www.polatmakina.com.tr http://www.engelhard.com http://www.sud-chemie.com KAYNAKLAR Bernardini, E. (1973). Oil and Fat Technology. II.Revised edition. Publishing House “Technology” s.r.l., Rome, 763 s. Brennar, J.G., Butters, J.R., Cowell, N.D., Lilly, A.E.X. (1976). Food Engineering Operations. 2nd edition. Applied Science Publishers Ltd. 700 s. Hoffmann, G. (1989) . The chemistry and Technology of Edible Oils and Fats and Their Fat Products. Academic Press, USA, 384 s. Keskin, H. (1981). Besin Kimyası. Fatih Yayınevi Matbaası, Istanbul, 656 s. Patterson, H.B.W. (1983). Hydrogenation of Fats and Oils. Applied Science Publishers, Ireland, 310 s. Patterson, H.B.W. (1989). Handling and Storage of Oilseeds, oils, fats and meal. Elsevier Applied Science, London, New York, 394 s. Swern, D. (1982). Bailey’s Industrial Oil and Fat Products. Vol.1,2,3. John Wiley & Sons, Canada, 841 s., 603 s., 353 s. Wan, P.J. (1991). Introduction to Fats and Oils technology. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, USA. Raw materials Raw Oil bearing materials used as raw materials in fats and oils manufacturing may be of either plant (seed or fruit) or animal (land or marine animal) origin. Plants used to produce edible Plants products: products: Soybean, cottonseed, sunflower seed, safflower seed, corn germ, peanut, olive, rice bran, rapeseed,canola, coconut, palm fruit, and carob. Plant sources for ind. oils:Flax (linseed), castor bean, tung nut, and jojoba seed. Animal sources and animal fat products: Cattle, sheep, pigs, fish Butter, lard, tallow, whale oil and fish oil. In TURKEY In Main raw materials used for oil manufacturing process are: cottonseed sunflower seed rapeseed (canola) olive SUNFLOWER SEED SUNFLOWER Healthy, natural sunflower oil is produced from oil type sunflower seeds. Sunflower oil is light in taste and appearance and supplies more Vitamin E than any other vegetable oil. It is a combination of monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats with low saturated fat levels. There are three types of sunflower oil available; mid-oleic,, linoleic and high oleic sunflower oil. All are developed with standard breeding techniques. They differ in oleic levels and each one offers unique properties. Mid-oleic sunflower oil It is lower in saturated fat (less than 10%) than linoleic sunflower oil and has higher oleic levels (55-75%) with the remainder being linoleic (15the 35%). Linoleic sunflower oil Linoleic sunflower oil is the original sunflower oil and until recently Linoleic has been the most common type of sunflower oil. It is a polyunsaturated oil with low saturated fat levels. This type of sunflower oil is predominantly (65%) polyunsaturated. (65%) The type of polyunsaturated oil it contains is linoleic acid (an omega-6 acid) and is one of two essential fatty acids. Our bodies need this essential nutrient but can’t make it. It must be supplied by food sources. The balance of this sunflower oil is monounsaturated fats (oleic) at 21% and a low saturated fat level of 11%. Linoleic sunflower oil is available as a liquid salad oil and is used in margarine and shortening applications. Because of the in high levels of polyunsaturated fats in linoleic sunflower oil, the oil is susceptible to oxidation during commercial usage, especially frying. Like other highly polyunsaturated oils, such as soybean and canola, it can be hydrogenated to a more stable form. it High oleic sunflower oil High oleic sunflower oil is very high in oleic (monounsaturated) acid. High oleic sunflower oil is usually defined as having a minimum 80 percent oleic acid. The oil provides excellent stability without hydrogenation. High oleic sunflower oil offers a trans free oil solution for customers. The oil has many uses including bakery applications, spray coating oils for cereal, crackers and dried fruit; it is used in non-dairy creamers, many types of frying and other uses. COTTONSEED COTTONSEED Like the name suggests, cottonseed oil is extracted from cottonseed. Cottonseed is mainly an unsaturated oil, as 70% of this oil is unsaturated (18% monounsaturated (oleic acid), and 52% polyunsaturated (from linoleic acid). Cottonseed oil is often preferred over many other oils that would have to be hydrogenated (like soybean oil). SOYBEAN SOYBEAN The soybean (U.S.) or soya bean (UK) (Glycine max) is a species of legume native to East Asia. The oil and protein content together account for about 60% of dry soybeans by weight; protein at 40% and oil at 20%. The remainder consists of 35% carbohydrate and about 5% ash. Soybean cultivars comprise approximately 8% seed coat or hull, 90% cotyledons and 2% hypocotyl axis or germ. Types of Sunflower Oil and Their Fatty Acid Profiles Fatty C 18:1 18:1 20% 82% 65% C 18:2 69% 9% 26% C 18:0 11% 9% 9% Linoleic High-oleic Mid-oleic Mid-oleic Soybean composition Soybean Protein 40 % Oil (dry basis) 20 % Cellulose and hemicellulose 17 % Sugars 7% Crude fiber 5% Ash (dry basis) 6 % RAPESEED RAPESEED Traditionally, rapeseed is used for birdseed or industrial purposes. Industrial varieties of rapeseed contain about 55 percent erucic acid and are used to make lubricants and diesel fuel substitutes and to manufacturer plastics.These varieties have high levels of toxic glycosinolates along with high erucic-acid levels, which renders the processed meal unsuitable for human or livestock consumption. New varieties of rapeseed, developed in Canada and Europe, are low in erucic acid and glycosinolates. These varieties are the so-called “double low” types and sometimes are marketed as Canola. The extracted oil is used as an edible vegetable oil. Domestic markets are expected to increase because previousrestrictions are being relaxed. CORN GERM CORN Corn oil is oil extracted from the germ of corn (maize). Its main use Corn oil germ ). is in cooking, where its high smoke point makes it a valuable smoke point frying oil. It is also a key ingredient in some margarines. frying margarines One bushel of corn contains 3% of oil. Corn agronomists have bushel agronomists developed high-oil varieties, however, these varieties tend to show lower field yields, so they are not universally accepted by growers. Refined corn oil is 99% triglyceride, with proportions of triglyceride with approximately 59% polyunsaturated fatty acid, 24% fatty acid 24% monounsaturated fatty acid, and 13% saturated fatty acid. monounsaturated Corn oil is also one source of biodiesel. Other industrial uses for Corn biodiesel Other corn oil include soap, paint, rustproofing for metal surfaces, inks soap paint rustproofing inks , textiles, and insecticides. It is sometimes used as a carrier for textiles and insecticides It drug molecules in pharmaceutical preparations. pharmaceutical HAZELNUT HAZELNUT Hazelnuts are rich in protein and unsaturated Hazelnuts protein unsaturated fat. Moreover, they contain significant fat Moreover, amounts of thiamine and vitamin B6, as well thiamine vitamin as as smaller amounts of other B vitamins. as Hazelnut oil, pressed from hazelnuts, is Hazelnut oil pressed strongly flavoured and used as a cooking oil. cooking In the fatty acid composition of In hazelnut oil, there is around 71-91% of oleic acid. Hazelnut oil also contains linoleic acid Hazelnut at a rate of around 2-21%. Hazelnut oil is rich in calcium and Hazelnut vitamin E. OLIVES OLIVES The Olive (Olea europaea) iis a species s species The Olive of small tree in the family Oleaceae, tree family Oleaceae native to coastal areas of the eastern Mediterranean region, from Syria and the Mediterranean Syria maritime parts of Asia Minor and Asia Minor northern Iran at the south end of the Iran Caspian Sea. Its fruit, the olive, iis of Caspian Sea Its olive s major agricultural importance in the Mediterranean region as the source of Mediterranean olive oil. olive oil 1-2% Epicarp 1-2% 63-86% Mesocarp (pulp) (pulp) %10-30 Endocarp (stone) %2-6 Kernel PALM FRUITS PALM Palm fruit Palm kernel Palm pulp Palm oil is a form of edible vegetable oil obtained from the vegetable oil fruit of the oil palm tree. fruit oil palm The palm fruit is the source of both palm oil (extracted from palm fruit) and palm kernel oil (extracted from the fruit seeds). Palm oil itself is reddish because it contains a high amount of beta-carotene. It is used as betaIt cooking oil, to make margarine and is a component of cooking oil to margarine many processed foods. Boiling it for a few minutes destroys the carotenoids and the oil becomes carotenoids colourless. Palm oil is one of the few vegetable oils relatively high in saturated fats (such as coconut oil) saturated fats coconut oil and thus semi-solid at room temperature. and It is also an important component of many soaps, It soaps washing powders and personal care products, and has controversially found a new use as a feedstock for biofuel. biofuel Fatty acids composition Fatty Palm oil C8 C10 C12 C14 C16 C18 C18:1 C18:2 Palm kernel oil 3 6 50 16 6 1 17 1 1 50 3 40 6 Palm oil is rich in carotenoids and its deep red color. The major component of its glycerides is the saturated fatty acid, palmitic acid. Oleic acid content of vegetable oil Oil Sunflower Soybean Sesam Coconut Cottonseed Corn germ Olive Oleic acid (%) 14-39 17-26 35-42 5-8 14-21 20-42 65-85 Whole seed Oil Extraction Oil Meal (Crude protein 48 %) ...
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