AST251- Past Test 07

AST251- Past Test 07 - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of Arts and Science APRIL 2007 EXAMINATION A‘ST251H1S Monday, April 23'“, 2:00 pm — 4:00pm Y Duration — 2 hours. Total number of marks available: 88 Calculators, books, notes or any other aids are not permitted. NAME: STUDENT NO.: Section 1. Record your answers on the Scantron Sheet provided. 1) What is the cause of the retrograde motion of planets: a) time delay in the light signal arrival to Earth b) the elliptical shape of the orbits c) perspective effects as seen from the moving Earth d) delays in the relative motion of the systems of reference 2) Where can the planet Mercury be located on the sky as seen by a viewer on Earth: a) always far from the Sun b) always close to the Sun 0) anywhere in the sky d) always in proximity to Venus 3) Viewing stars from opposite sides of Earth‘s orbit causes perspective effects called: a) proper motion b) angular motion 0) parallax d) perturbation Page 1 Multiple Choice Questions: 60 marks. Each question is worth one mark. 5) 6). 7) 9) Copernicus used a small telescope for his studies: a) at the end of his life b) throughout his active life c) never d) only while studying in Italy Choose the statement that best describes the relation between Kepler's laws (KL) and Newton’s laws of gravity (NLG) a) KL the same as NLG b) KL helped to establish NLG c) KL are contradictory to NLG d) KL have no relation to NLG The development of the basic understanding of celestial body motions, from Copernicus to Newton, took place within a) one generation of scientists b) one millennium c) 150 years d) 350 years The Milky Way is a a) star cluster b) galaxy cluster c) galaxy d) stellar moving stream The Solar System includes a) planets, planetoids, galaxies, comets, satellites b) planetoids, planetesimals, meteoroids, planetary nebulae, comets c) planetoids, meteors, planetary nebulae, satellites, comets d) planetoids, meteors, planets, satellites, comets The Sun a) is a relatively large star b) is a relatively small star c) is a relatively average star d) cannot be compared with stars Page 2 ‘oont’d . . . 10) Expressed in light time units the a) the Solar system is hours across while Galaxy is days across b) the Solar system is months across while Galaxy is millennia across 0) the Solar system is hours across while Galaxy is millennia across d) the Solar system is a few days across while Galaxy is weeks across 11) Most known elements, except hydrogen and helium, a) were all created in the first hundred years after the Big Bang b) were created over the whole existence of the Universe c) were created early, during the first 3 minutes after the Big Bang d) were created relatively recently, during the last 4.6 Gyr 12) Approximately how old is the Universe? a) 1 Gyr b) 4.5 Gyr c) 13.5 Gyr d) More than 100 Gyr 13) Isotopes are versions of normal atoms which, relative to the most common types of a given element, are normally: a) lighter than normal atoms b) heavier than normal atoms ‘ c) have same weight as normal atoms d) have different electric charge than normal atoms 14) A radioactive isotope is characterized by: a) emitting radio waves b) emitting particles 0) emitting only light, but no particles d) emitting electric charges 15) Of the three levels of geological record classification (era, eon, period), the shortest is: a) eon b) era c) period d) they are unrelated 16) The best record of the “late heavy bombardment” is on the surface of: a) Moon b) Venus c) Earth d) Mars Eont'd -. . . Page 3 17) The convective motions within the Earth’s globe take place in the: a) lithosphere b) molten part of the core c) crust d) mantle 18) The mid-oceanic ridges are places where tectonic plates: a) converge b) disperse c) collide d) erupt 19) Subduction zones are places where tectonic plates: a) erupt b) disperse c) collide d) sink one under an other 20) Earth’s magnetic field is due to a) the rotation of Earth's core b) electromagnetic phenomena on the Sun 0) electromagnetic phenomena in space around Earth d) the motion of tectonic plates 21) The greenhouse gases are a) a direct result of Earth's vegetation b) produced by volcanoes c) used in greenhouses d) avoided in greenhouses 22) During the Snowball Earth events the temperature of the globe was close to a) water's freezing point b) -27sc c) 4500 d) —50c 23) According to most prevailing interpretations the Moon was created a) together with Earth ' b) after Earth was already formed c) before Earth was formed d) was captured by Earth mnt’d . .. Page 4 . 24) For the land masses to be totally submerged under water, the amount of water on Earth would have to be at least a) 30% larger b) 70% larger c) 2times larger d) 10times larger 25) The key term for Dan/vin’s Theory of Evolution was a) selective attraction b) selective breeding c) natural selection d) natural combination 26) The most common element (in terms of weight) in living organisms is a) hydrogen b) oxygen 0) carbon d) nitrogen 27) Why is silicon mentioned in the context of broad possibilities for life? a) it is most similar in its chemical properties to oxygen b) it is most dissimilar in its chemical properties from oxygen c) it is very common in space d) it is most similar in its chemical properties to carbon 28) Organic matter in living organisms shows a preference for a) right handedness b) left and right handedness 0) left handedness d) it is irrelevant 29) The domains in the classification of cellular forms consist of a) Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya b) Amoeba, Bacteria, Eukarya c) Archaea, Plants, Animals d) Bacteria, Plants, Animals 30) The ATP molecule a) is one of many molecules used to store and release energy in cells b) is the only molecule used to store and release energy in cells c) rarely appears in cells d) playsa crucial role in photosynthesis " , I: ‘ cont d . . . Page 5 31) The gene is a) a part of the DNA molecule to encode one property of the body b) a sequence of the DNA encoding several properties of the body 0) a term used in description of genetic similarities d) a popular name for the main function of the DNA 32) A water molecule is a) polar b) bi-stable c) uni-polar d) ambi-polar 33) A DNA base is a) one of the two helical structures of the DNA molecule b) the only helical structure that the DNA molecule possesses c) one of four chemical compounds which link the double helix d) the basic substance from which the DNA molecule is made 34) The extremophiles include organisms living in a) temperatures exceeding 300C b) temperatures exceeding 1000 c) temperatures close to absolute zero d) space 35) The oldest life fossils on Earth date from a) 4.5 Gyr b) 3.5 Gyr c) 2.5 Gyr d) 1.5 Gyr 36) The Miller-Urey experiment demonstrated that a) life can be created in a laboratory b) amino acids can be made in a laboratory c) life cannot be created in a laboratory d) origins of life must be sought in other celestial bodies 37) Which statement best describes Prokaryotes (P) and Eukaryotes (E): a) P followed E in the cell development b) E followed P in the cell development c) E and P existed from the beginning of cell-based life on Earth d) E and P appeared late when there was enough oxygen in the atmosphere Eont’d . Page 6 38) Cyanobacteria in the early Earth's atmosphere a) contributed to production of oxygen b) contributed to destruction of oxygen c) produced cyan compounds d) contributed to destruction of nitrogen 39) Mass extinctions on Earth were mostly due to a) radioactivity of minerals b) violent fluctuations in the amount of oxygen 0) Snowball Earth episodes d) asteroid and comet impacts 40) The evolution of humans a) is fully understood b) is coping with too many artefacts of failed evolutionary branches 0) shows a large missing link between apes and humans d) is understood as a progressive and direct evolution from apes 41) Water is one of few liquids which: a) contracts while freezing b) expands while freezing c) keeps the same volume while freezing d) keeps the same mass while freezing 42) Traces of water may exist on the Moon a) close to lunar poles b) on the side invisible from Earth c) under the surface d) during the prolonged lunar night 43) Venus, when compared with Earth, is most similar in a) rotation b) solar illumination c) atmospheric content d) size 44) Mars’ canals a) once carried water b) are planned to be built after colonisation c) are visible from time to time from Earth d) were an optical illusion cont’d . Page 7 45) Mars' rotation rate and the inclination of its rotation axis are a) similar to that of Venus b) similar to that of Earth c) unlike that of either Venus or Earth d) currently undeterminable 46) Water on Mars a) may be present under the surface b) all evaporated c) appears only as water vapour d) forms a thin layer in deepest craters 47) The atmosphere of Mars a) is all gone b) is very rarefied, yet most similar in composition to that of Venus c) is very rarefied. yet most similar in composition to that of Earth d) is slowly being formed by out-gassing of rocks 48) Which statement best describes the moons of Jupiter: a) all similar in size to Earth‘s Moon b) in some cases larger than Mercury c) all smaller than Earth’s Moon d) in some cases larger than Mars 49) Titan is a) one of the planetoids coming close to Earth b) one of Jupiter’s large moons heavily covered with ice c) one of Saturn’s large moons heavily covered with ice d) a dwarf planet 50) The most volcanically active body in the Solar System is a) Earth b) Venus 0) Titan d) lo 51) The tidal forces experienced in the satellite systems such as those of Jupiter and Saturn 3) change with each revolution of the planet around the Sun b) decrease with the increasing distance from the planet c) stay constant with the increasing distance from the planet d increase with the increasin distance from the lanet rt ) g p d I I i Page 8 52) The habitable zone is defined as a range of distances from the central star where a) water based life can potentially exist b) water based life is known to exist 0) extra-solar planets have been discovered d) humans can move from Earth, in the future 53) As the Sun ages, its luminosity in the next 5 Gyr will a) be more or lass the same b) gradually decrease c) gradually increase d) fluctuate and then rapidly drop 54) Binarity of stars is a) very rarely observed b) not known 0) never observed d) very common 55) Most of extra-solar planets were discovered by a) careful imaging of nearby stars b) searching for spectral signatures characteristic of planets V c) searching for infra-red excess radiation from planets d) observing velocities of stars 56) Searches for extra-solar planets a) are being planned in some of the richest countries b) were done mostly in the 20th century and are no longer continued c) were done mostly in 19th century when most results were obtained d) are very actively done by many teams 57) When compared with the solar system planets, most of extra-solar planets a) have more elliptical orbits b) have less elliptical orbits 0) there is no major difference d) move on hyperbolic orbits 58) When compared with the solar system planets, most of extra-solar planets a) have very large, extended orbits b) have very small, tight orbits c) show a much wider range of orbit sizes d) there is no major difference in their orbits c'ont'd. . . Page 9 59) SETI stands for: a) Standard Earth Temperature Incidence b) Standard Evolutionary Trend Index 0) Systematic Evolutionary Trend Index d) Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence 60) For conventional chemical rockets, the term “mass ratio" means a) the mass of the payload divided by the mass of the rocket after launch b) the mass of the fuel divided by the mass of the rocket after launch c) the mass of the fuel divided by the mass of the rocket before launch d) the mass of the payload divided by the mass of the fuel Section 2. Short Answer Questions: 28 marks. The value of each question is indicated in brackets. Record your answers in the booklet provided. A. Describe the role of Galileo in advancing our understanding of the Universe. Name at least five important things he did and/or discovered. [5 marks] B. What is the most prevailing theory how the Moon formed? How did it end up with its present composition? [3 marks] C. What are Martian meteorites, and what is known about them? [5 marks] D. Describe the most important assumptions of DanNin’s theory of evolution. [3 marks] E. What are the essential differences between the atmospheres of Earth and Venus? [3 marks] F. Describe the reasons why solar type stars which formed early in the Universe are NOT the best places to look for planets with life. [3 marks] G. Describe the Drake equation. Describe what it’s used for and how it works. [3 marks] H. What is the essence of the Fermi paradox? [3 marks] Page 10 ...
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AST251- Past Test 07 - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO Faculty of...

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