Unit 10 Periodic trends

Unit 10 Periodic trends - THE PERIODIC TABLE TABLE Ch 6 THE...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: THE PERIODIC TABLE TABLE Ch 6 THE TOUR CONTINUES! MEMORIZATION VS. MEMORIZATION TRENDS TRENDS The History of the Table The 1. Dobereiner (early 1800’s): triads. 2. Newlands (1865): atomic mass and octaves. octaves. 3. Meyers and Mendeleev (1869): based on Meyers Mendeleev atomic mass and columns with similar atomic properties. properties. 4. Moseley (1913): based on atomic number. number. The Periodic Law The When elements are arranged in When order of increasing atomic number, their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern. periodic The Organization The • Groups or families and periods. Groups periods – Family names. – Groups – similar properties. – Vertical columns vs. horizontal rows. Vertical horizontal • Metals (transition & inner transition), ), nonmetals, and semi-metals. nonmetals, – Malleability vs. ductility. Review Review • Metals: Properties include luster or shine, Metals: good conductors of heat/electricity, malleable, and ductile. and • Nonmetals: Large variation in properties. • Metalloids or Semimetals: The in between. • Family Names: (see pg 162-163) – – – – – – – – – – – Representative (1A – 8A) Transition (1B – 8B) Inner Transition Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Boron family Carbon family Nitrogen family Oxygen family Halogens Noble gases Electron Configuration Electron • Electrons in the highest principle energy level = Outermost electrons Outermost = Valence electrons Valence • Elements in a group have similar properties Elements because they have valence electrons in a similar configuration. configuration. • Abbreviated electron configuration using the Abbreviated noble gas inner core. noble • Four blocks (s, p, d, and f). Four • See page 166 The shape of the periodic table is a result of the way electrons fill the orbitals of different energy levels. energy A systematic variation in the properties of elements going systematic down a group or across a period. down Periodic Trends Periodic Atomic radius. Ionic radius. Ionization energy. Successive ionization energies. Electronegativity. • • • • • Atomic Radius Atomic • The distance from the center of an The atom’s nucleus to its outermost electron. electron. • Atoms get larger going down a group. • Atoms get smaller moving from left Atoms to right across each period. to – Why? (pg 170-171) Ionic Radius Ionic (pg 172 & 176) • Atom loses electrons = positive Atom ion = smaller. ion • Atom gains electrons = Atom negative ion = larger. negative • Ion trend (Left vs. Right side). Ionization Energy Ionization (pg 173-174) • The energy needed to remove one of an The atoms electrons. atoms • Measure of how strongly an atom holds Measure onto its outermost electron. onto • Ionization energies decrease as you move Ionization down a group. down • Ionization energies increase as you move Ionization from left to right across a period. from • Opposite the atomic radius trends. Successive Ionization Energies Energies • Increases for each electron Increases removed. removed. • “Large” jump for noble gas Large” inner core. inner Electronegativity Electronegativity (pg 177-178) • Reflects the ability to attract electrons Reflects in a chemical bond. in • Related to its ionization energy and Related electron affinity. electron • Increases as you move from left to Increases right and decreases as you move down. down. Electron Affinity • Energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron • Trends are the same as electronegativity and ionization energy. Periodic Trends (pg 178) (pg M, Z, ro, Increases Increases M, Z, EN, & IE increases ro increases increases EN & IE EN increases ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online