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Unit 10 Periodic trends

Unit 10 Periodic trends - THE PERIODIC TABLE TABLE Ch 6 THE...

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Unformatted text preview: THE PERIODIC TABLE TABLE Ch 6 THE TOUR CONTINUES! MEMORIZATION VS. MEMORIZATION TRENDS TRENDS The History of the Table The 1. Dobereiner (early 1800’s): triads. 2. Newlands (1865): atomic mass and octaves. octaves. 3. Meyers and Mendeleev (1869): based on Meyers Mendeleev atomic mass and columns with similar atomic properties. properties. 4. Moseley (1913): based on atomic number. number. The Periodic Law The When elements are arranged in When order of increasing atomic number, their physical and chemical properties show a periodic pattern. periodic The Organization The • Groups or families and periods. Groups periods – Family names. – Groups – similar properties. – Vertical columns vs. horizontal rows. Vertical horizontal • Metals (transition & inner transition), ), nonmetals, and semi-metals. nonmetals, – Malleability vs. ductility. Review Review • Metals: Properties include luster or shine, Metals: good conductors of heat/electricity, malleable, and ductile. and • Nonmetals: Large variation in properties. • Metalloids or Semimetals: The in between. • Family Names: (see pg 162-163) – – – – – – – – – – – Representative (1A – 8A) Transition (1B – 8B) Inner Transition Alkali Metals Alkaline Earth Metals Boron family Carbon family Nitrogen family Oxygen family Halogens Noble gases Electron Configuration Electron • Electrons in the highest principle energy level = Outermost electrons Outermost = Valence electrons Valence • Elements in a group have similar properties Elements because they have valence electrons in a similar configuration. configuration. • Abbreviated electron configuration using the Abbreviated noble gas inner core. noble • Four blocks (s, p, d, and f). Four • See page 166 The shape of the periodic table is a result of the way electrons fill the orbitals of different energy levels. energy A systematic variation in the properties of elements going systematic down a group or across a period. down Periodic Trends Periodic Atomic radius. Ionic radius. Ionization energy. Successive ionization energies. Electronegativity. • • • • • Atomic Radius Atomic • The distance from the center of an The atom’s nucleus to its outermost electron. electron. • Atoms get larger going down a group. • Atoms get smaller moving from left Atoms to right across each period. to – Why? (pg 170-171) Ionic Radius Ionic (pg 172 & 176) • Atom loses electrons = positive Atom ion = smaller. ion • Atom gains electrons = Atom negative ion = larger. negative • Ion trend (Left vs. Right side). Ionization Energy Ionization (pg 173-174) • The energy needed to remove one of an The atoms electrons. atoms • Measure of how strongly an atom holds Measure onto its outermost electron. onto • Ionization energies decrease as you move Ionization down a group. down • Ionization energies increase as you move Ionization from left to right across a period. from • Opposite the atomic radius trends. Successive Ionization Energies Energies • Increases for each electron Increases removed. removed. • “Large” jump for noble gas Large” inner core. inner Electronegativity Electronegativity (pg 177-178) • Reflects the ability to attract electrons Reflects in a chemical bond. in • Related to its ionization energy and Related electron affinity. electron • Increases as you move from left to Increases right and decreases as you move down. down. Electron Affinity • Energy change that occurs when an atom gains an electron • Trends are the same as electronegativity and ionization energy. Periodic Trends (pg 178) (pg M, Z, ro, Increases Increases M, Z, EN, & IE increases ro increases increases EN & IE EN increases ...
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