Unit 11 Bonding and geometry

Unit 11 Bonding and geometry - BONDING BONDING What is the...

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Unformatted text preview: BONDING BONDING What is the role of the electron? Ionic vs. Covalent Bonding Ionic Bonding Ionic (Defined) Static electrical attraction A positive charged ion (cation) is positive attracted to a negatively charged ion (anion). (anion). Metals vs. Nonmetals. Crystalline structures with specific Crystalline patterns. patterns. Electronegativity Difference > 1.6 Electronegativity 1.6 Ionic Bonding Ionic (Properties) Conductivity Solubility Melting Point and Boiling Melting Point Point Bond Length Ionic Bonding Ionic (The Octet Rule) Stability Noble gases are very stable. Elements gain or lose electrons to achieve Elements an electron configuration of a noble gas. an Octet Rule: Atoms tend to gain, lose, or Octet share electrons in order to acquire a full set of valence electrons (The Noble Gas Rule). Rule). Review Groups IA thru VIIA and ion Review formation. formation. Ionic Bonding Ionic (Types of Ions) Monatomic ions: “one-atom ions”. Polyatomic ions: ions that consist of Polyatomic more than one atom. more Atoms Atoms that make up polyatomic ions are bonded together by covalent bonds. bonded Ionic Bonding Ionic (Electron Dot Diagrams) Valence electrons are represented. Dots are placed alone or in pairs Dots around an imaginary box. around Used to show how electrons Used rearrange during a reaction rearrange Examples. Covalent Bonds Covalent (Defined) Formed by a shared pair of electrons Formed between two atoms. between Electronegativity Difference < 1.6 Electronegativity Molecules: A group of atoms that are Molecules: united by covalent bonds. united Molecular compound: A substance Molecular that is made of molecules. that Covalent Bonds Covalent (Properties) Conductivity Solubility Melting Point and Boiling Point Bond Length Polarity Covalent Bonds Covalent (Structural Formula) Lewis structures are based on Lewis Lewis dot diagrams of an atom. dot The dots between two elements The represent the electrons of the covalent bond. covalent Dots or Dashes. Octet rule. Examples. Covalent Bonds Covalent (Multiple Bonds) Single covalent bonds: Two atoms share Single one pair of electrons. one Example. Double covalent bonds: Consists of two Double pairs of shared electrons. pairs Example: Formaldehyde (H2CO). Is the Octet Rule satisfied? Triple covalent bonds: Consists of three Triple pairs of shared electrons. pairs Example: Ethyne (C2H2). Is the Octet Rule satisfied? Covalent Bonds Covalent (Polarity) Occurs when one atom is Occurs significantly more electronegative than another, the covalent bond is said to be polar. said δ+ and δ Nonpolar: Similar or equal Nonpolar: electronegativities. electronegativities. Bond Type by Electronegativity Electronegativity 0.0 to 0.4 0.5 to 1.6 > 1.6 Nonpolar covalent Polar covalent Ionic Molecular Geometry Molecular Valence-shell electron pair repulsion Valence-shell theory (VSEPR). theory The VSEPR theory states that in a The small molecule, the pairs of valence electrons are arranged as far apart from each other as possible. from Coordination Number Number Hybridization Bond Angle Distance Distance between outer elements elements Structure Name # of bonds and Atomic orbitals of Atomic lone pairs used in lone bonding around the center center 1 2 3 4 4 4 s sp sp2 sp3 sp3 sp3 360o 180o 120o 109.5o 107o 105o Spherical Linear Triangular Tetrahedron Pyramidal Bent / Angular ...
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2011 for the course CHEM 101 taught by Professor Petrovich during the Fall '08 term at N.C. State.

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