Unit 13 Liquids and solids

Unit 13 Liquids and solids - STATES OF STATES MATTER MATTER...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: STATES OF STATES MATTER MATTER SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS SOLIDS CHAPTER 13 Kinetic Molecular Theory Kinetic • Condensed states: liquids and solids (higher Condensed densities then gases). densities • Physical properties of the states of matter. Physical Slide 3 Slide • Liquids: The attractive forces between the Liquids: particles are substantially stronger than a gas, but are still not strong enough to hold the particles in a fixed position. particles • Solids: The attractive forces between particles Solids: are stronger than in a gas or liquid and the particles can not overcome these forces and move away from each other. move Gas Gas Highly compressible Low density Fills container Fills completely completely Assumes the shape of Assumes the container it occupies occupies Rapid diffusion Liquid Slightly compressible High density Does not expand to fill Does the container –has a definite volume definite Assumes the shape of Assumes the container it occupies occupies Slow diffusion Solid Slightly compressible High density Rigidly retains its Rigidly volume volume Retains its own shape Extremely slow Extremely diffusion-occurs only at surfaces surfaces Low expansion on Low heating High expansion on High heating heating Low expansion on Low heating heating Kinetic Molecular Theory • According to the Kinetic Molecular Theory, the state of According a substance at room temperature depends on the strength of the attractions between its particles. strength Temperature is a measure of the average KE of the Temperature particles in a substance. particles Different To = different KE. Kinetic Energy Solid Liquid Gas Low Medium High Attractive Forces High Medium Low Intermolecular Forces Intermolecular • • • • • • • Ionic vs. Covalent bonds. Covalent bonds = molecules. Intramolecular forces: covalent bonds. Intermolecular forces: The forces of Intermolecular attraction between neighboring molecules: molecules: Substantially weaker than ionic or Substantially covalent bonds. covalent Involved in the change of state. Dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces, Dispersion and hydrogen bonds. and Dispersion Forces Dispersion • A force of attraction between force induced dipoles. induced • Induced dipole: A dipole created by Induced the presence of neighboring dipole. the • “Perfectly symmetrical” electron Perfectly cloud vs. temporary dipole. cloud • Noble gas boiling points vs. Noble dispersion forces. dispersion Dipole – Dipole Forces Dipole • Attractions between opposite Attractions charges of adjacent permanent dipoles. dipoles. • Polar bonding. Hydrogen Bonding Hydrogen • Present when a covalent bond is Present formed between hydrogen (weak electronegativity) and an element with high electronegativity. with • Fluorine, oxygen, and nitrogen. According to the kinetic molecular theory, the state of a substance at room temperature depends on the strength of the attractions between its particles. between Properties of Liquids Properties • • • • • Liquid physical properties are determined by Liquid the nature and strength of the intermolecular forces present. forces Viscosity: Viscosity: A measure of resistance to motion that exists measure in a liquid. in Strong intermolecular forces = greater Strong viscosity. viscosity. Increases as the temperature decreases. Properties of Liquids • • • • • Surface tension: The resistance of a Surface liquid to an increase in its surface area. liquid An imbalance of forces at the surface of An a liquid. liquid. The surface will behave as if a tight film The was stretched across it. Beading and floating needles. Increases with strong intermolecular Increases forces. forces. Water Water • • • • • • High boiling point. High specific heat. Density of solid is less than liquid. Density High surface tension. High heat of vaporization. “The universal solvent”. Changes of State Changes Always involves a change in energy. Always MP CP BP Endothermic (energy absorbed) FP Exothermic (energy released) BP GAS CP MP LIQUID FP SOLID Heating Curves Heating & Phase Diagrams ...
View Full Document

Ask a homework question - tutors are online