Chapter 6 US

Chapter 6 US - Chapter 6: Launching the New Nation Section...

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Chapter 6: Launching the New Nation Section 1: Washington Heads the New Government The New Government Takes Shape -As a hero of the revolution, Washington was the unanimous choice in the first presidential ballot. -Although the Constitution provided a strong foundation, it was not a detailed plan for governing. -With no judicial system set up, Washington and the Congress came up with the *Judiciary Act of 1789 - this law provided for a Supreme Court consisting of a chief justice and five associate justices . -It also setup 3 federal circuit courts as well as 13 federal district courts spread throughout the country. -Section 25 of the act allowed state court decisions to be appealed to the federal court , when constitutional issues were raised- thus, guaranteeing that federal laws remained “the supreme law of the land ,” as stated in the Constitution. -The executive branch was shaped next. -Washington needed help to make policies and carry out the laws passed by Congress. -Three executive departments were created: -The Department of War led by Henry Knox, to handle military matters. -The Department of State led by Thomas Jefferson, to deal with foreign affairs. -The Department of Treasury led by Alexander Hamilton , to manage finances. -These departments soon became the president’s Chief Advisers , or *Cabinet . Hamilton and Jefferson Debate -Political divisions in the new nation were great. -No two men embodied these differences more than Hamilton and Jefferson . -Hamilton believed in a strong central government led by the educated elite of the upper class. -Jefferson distrusted a strong central government and the rich. He favored strong state and local governments rooted in popular participation. (Contrasting views page 185) -Hamilton’s Economic Plan -He proposed to pay off the foreign debt and issue new bonds to soldiers who had received them during the war as certificates that promised payment plus interest. -Hamilton also proposed that the federal government assume the debts of the states. -He reasoned that this would give creditors (the people who originally loaned the money) an incentive to support the new federal government. -This plan made many Southern states furious because many had already paid off most of their debts. -Plans for a National Bank -Hamilton believed that there should be a national bank that would be funded by both the federal government and the wealthy private investors. 1
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*The Bank of the United States - would issue paper money and handle tax receipts and other government funds. -Opponents of the National Bank, such as James Madison , claimed that it would forge an unhealthy alliance between the government and the wealthy business interests. -Madison also argued that since the Constitution made no provision for a national bank
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2011 for the course HI 251 taught by Professor Ladie during the Fall '07 term at N.C. State.

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Chapter 6 US - Chapter 6: Launching the New Nation Section...

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