Chapter 8 US

Chapter 8 US - Chapter 8 Reforming American Society Section 1 Religion Sparks Reform*Charles Grandison Finney was a preacher during this era of

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Chapter 8: Reforming American Society Section 1: Religion Sparks Reform *Charles Grandison Finney - was a preacher during this era of reform that started in the 1830s. -Other reformers of this period included women's rights, social reform, and abolition. *The Second Great Awakening - was a religious movement that swept the US after 1790. -Finney and other preachers rejected the 18th century Calvinistic belief that God predetermined one's salvation or damnation. -They emphasized individual responsibility for seeking salvation, and insisted that people could improve themselves and society. -These preachers would often hold *revivals that would last for five days. -This Great Awakening also brought Christianity on a large scale to the enslaved African-Americans. Transcendentalism and Reforms *Ralph Waldo Emerson - a New England writer, nurtured taking new pride in the emerging culture. He led a group practicing *transcendentalism - a philosophical and literary movement that emphasize living a simple life and celebrated the truth found in nature and in personal emotion and imagination . -This spawned a literary movement that stressed American ideas of optimism , freedom , and self-reliance . *Henry David Thoreau - put the idea of self-reliance into practice by abandoning community life and building a cabin where he would live alone for two years. -Believing in the importance of individual conscience, he urged people not to obey laws they considered unjust by protesting peacefully. This is known as *civil disobedience . -Thoreau went to jail for not paying his taxes because they helped finance the war. -Unitarians , on the other hand, did not appeal to emotions, but emphasized reason and appeals to conscience as the path to perfection. This attracted a wealthy and educated following in New England. They believed that conversation was a gradual process and agreed with revivalists that individual and social reform was possible and important. Americans Form Ideal Communities -Some of the optimism of religious and social reform inspired the establishment of *utopian communities - experimental groups who tried to create a "Utopia ," or perfect place. They varied in their philosophies, but shared common goals such as self-sufficiency . -One of the best known was established in New Harmony , Indiana. -Another was Brook Farm , near Boston “to prepare society of liberal, intelligent and cultivated persons, whose relations with each other would permit a more wholesome and simple life that can be led amidst the pressure of our competitive institutions." Brooks Farm suffered a fire to a main building, which led to it being disbanded. -Most utopias lasted no more than a few years. Shaker Communities -Religious beliefs spurred other ideal communities. -The Shakers
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This note was uploaded on 01/28/2011 for the course HI 251 taught by Professor Ladie during the Fall '07 term at N.C. State.

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Chapter 8 US - Chapter 8 Reforming American Society Section 1 Religion Sparks Reform*Charles Grandison Finney was a preacher during this era of

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