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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 12: Reconstruction and Its Effects Section 1: The Politics of Reconstruction Lincoln's Plan for Reconstruction *Reconstruction- the period during which the US began to rebuild after the Civil War. (1865-1877)-This was also the process of the federal government readmitting the Confederate states back into the US. Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan – Dec.1863-This was this proclamation of amnesty and reconstruction.-After 10% of those on the 1860 voting lists took an oath of allegiance, a state could form a new state government and gain representation in Congress.-Under these terms, four states moved towards readmission into the Union- AR, LA, TN, & VA.-This moderate reconstruction plan angered a minority of Republicans in Congress, known as *Radical Republicans- the people who wanted to destroy the political power of former slaveholders and give African-Americans full citizenship and the right to vote. *Thaddeus Stevens- of Pennsylvania was the party leader. Radical Reaction – July 1864 *Wade-Davis Bill- proposed that Congress, not the president, be responsible for Reconstruction. It also declared that a majority, not just 10% of those eligible to vote in 1860 would have to take a solemn oath to support the Constitution.-Lincoln used a pocket veto to kill this bill. This upset the radicals. Johnson's Plan-He became president after Lincoln was killed. Johnson Continues Lincoln's Policies-Johnson's plan, like Lincoln’s, failed to address the needs of former slaves in three areas: land, voting rights and protection under the law . This too would upset the radicals.-Johnson was not in favor of former slaves gaining the right to vote and believe that "white men alone must manage the South ."-Johnson pardoned many political leaders of the confederacy allowing for most of them to be able to take part in federal government again. Both African-Americans and radicals were furious. Presidential Reconstruction Comes to a Standstill-February 1866- Congress voted to continue enforcement. The *Freemen's Bureau- was established by Congress in the last month of the war, it assisted former slaves and poor whites in the South by distributing cloths and food.-It also set up more than 4,000 schools, 40 hospitals, 61 industrial institutions, and 74 teacher- training centers. Civil Rights Act of 1866-This gave African-Americans citizenship and forbid states from passing discriminatory laws *Black codes- that restricted African-Americans lives.-Mississippi and South Carolina had first enacted black codes in 1865. Other Southern states had rapidly followed suit.-This restored many restrictions of slavery by prohibiting blacks from carrying weapons, serving on juries, testifying against whites, marrying whites, and traveling without permits. In some states, African-Americans were forbidden to own land....
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- Fall '07
- American Civil War, Southern United States, Reconstruction era of the United States, President Johnson