Chapter 14 US

Chapter 14 US - Chapter 14: A New Industrial Age Section 1:...

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Section 1: The Expansion of Industry Natural Resources Fuel Industrialization -By the 1920s, the US had become the leading industrial power in the world. -3 Factors That Led to the Industrial Boom : 1. A wealth of natural resources. 2. Government support for business. 3. A growing urban population that provided both cheap labor and markets for new products. *Edwin L. Drake - 1859 successfully used a steam engine that removed oil from beneath the earth's surface. -At first, oil was transformed into kerosene as well as gasoline. (which is a byproduct of the refining system) At first the Gasoline was thrown away. Bessemer Steel Process -Besides oil, coal and iron were found in abundant deposits. -Removing the carbon from iron produces a lighter, more flexible, and rust resistant metal-steel. *Bessemer Process -1850 developed by Henry Bessemer and William Kelly, it was an effective technique for transforming iron into steel by injecting air into molten iron to remove the carbon and other impurities. New Use for Steel -RR became the biggest consumers of steel. -The Brooklyn Bridge was built in 1883. *William Le Baron Jenny - designed the first skyscraper with a steel frame. (The Home Insurance Building in Chicago) Inventions Promote Change The Power of Electricity *Thomas Alva Edison - 1876 established the world's first research lab in New Jersey. There he perfected the incandescent light bulb , which was patented in 1880. He later invented an entire system for producing and distributing electrical power . -The harnessing of electricity completely changed the nature of business in America. Inventions Change Lifestyles *Christopher Sholes - 1867 invented the typewriter. *Alexander Graham Bell and *Thomas Watson - 1876 invented the telephone, which opened the way for a worldwide communications network. -Both the typewriter and the telephone created new jobs for women. -In 1870 women made up 5% of the workforce -- by 1910 they counted for nearly 40% of the clerical workforce. Section 2: The Age of the Railroads -The growth and consolidation of railroads benefited the nation, but also led to corruption and required government regulation. Railroads Spanned Time and Space *Transcontinental Railroad - in May 1869 the central Pacific and the Union Pacific met in Utah to nail the Golden Spike that marked the nation's first cross-country railroad. Railroad Time -In 1869 *Professor C. F. Dowd proposed that the earth's surface be divided up into 24 time zones , one for each hour of the day. -Under this plan, the US would contain four zones: Eastern, Central, Mountain, and Pacific . -The railroad companies endorsed Dowd’s plan in November 1883.
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Chapter 14 US - Chapter 14: A New Industrial Age Section 1:...

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